Corruption presents many challenges to the health sector. The impact of corruption on health care access and outcomes, as well as anti-corruption measures receive increasing interest among health policy-makers, since corruption in the health sector is a wide-spread problem with negatively affecting health status and social welfare. (46) 2.5.1 Literature Review In broader literature, the concept of corruption resp. mechanisms for controlling and enforcing corruption are often associated with governance and financing (7,46,47). Kaufmann (48) argues that in the progress towards UHC, governance resp.
Corruption is hard to expose, but there are many forms of corruption. Some forms of corruption are: gratuities, professional courtesy, alcohol and drug use while one is on duty, Graft, sexual misconduct. Those are just few types of corruption that the system face every day. Corruption can be carried out by anyone in the Criminal Justice field; it’s not just limited to officers, but judges, court officials, and lawyers can also be corrupt. It is hard for a worker to ignore the temptation of corruption because they are underpaid, overworked, and little recognition for their hard work.
Corruption undermines people’s trust in the political system, in its institutions and its leadership. A distrustful or apathetic public can then become yet another hurdle to challenging corruption; and (4). Environmental. Another form of corruption is th lack of, or non-enforcement of environmental regulation and legislation means that precious natural resources are carelessly exploited and entire ecological systems are ravaged. From mining, logging, carbon offsets, companies across the globe continue to pay bribes in return for unrestricted
Private healthcare is basically of two types: 1. Not for profit 2. For profit Not for
It be treated in the public hospitals and clinics that is supplied by public insurance since it lacks the least facilities that can treat any patient, consequently low, middle, and high income families shift to private insurance since it can provide the least facilities. Adding to that, private insurance can provide a plan of payment according to the patient’s salary, but each plan has its benefits and coverage. Some other private insurance have special enrollment periods. For instance, according to HealthCare.gov (2015)“ special enrollment period such as having a baby, getting married or moving to a new
Student’s Name Course Code Lecturer Due Date Economics of Corruption Corruption in an economic system starts at a macro-level. Growth of corruption and increasing presence in communities often affects entire systems of governance and produces negative effects on the gross productivity in a country. In addition, the aspect of gross inefficiency from the incidence of corruption has a frictional effect on economic development. Therefore, corruption practices such as bribery have a huge significance on the economic prospects of the developing countries. Kenya is one such country where corruption practices are rampant.
Corruption in the health sector can be life threatening and poor people are the ones which are mostly affected by this since the medical staff may demand bribes to attend to patients, for skipping the queue and also they may use medicines of a sub-standard quality. World Bank surveys show that in some countries a maximum of 80% of the non-salary health funds never reaches local facilities. The following table taken from the world bank website provides a brief summary of the evidence available for the health sector in Ghana, Peru, Tanzania and Uganda. Where there is high leakage clearly shows inadequate funding making good service seem impossible. This means that the people are unfairly treated since the patients have to pay the expenses of what was supposed to be free health
Individual benefactors, hospitals, medical labs, sturdy medical equipment providers, hospices and home health agencies have all been the topic of fraud researchers. Private healthcare clients promise a substantial sum of money and resources to examine and fight medical billing fraud. It is assessed that a health plan’s anti-fraud procedures save an average of $17 million yearly exploiting actions such as education and awareness movements, use of sophisticated software, communications with policyholders and use of a devoted study team. There are many types of medical billing fraud and abuse. Three of these are upcoding, cloning, and repeated billing.
Transparency International, a global organization against corruption defines governmental corruption, or also called political corruption, as ‘abuse of entrusted power for private gain which can be divided by the amount of money involved’. Global infrastructure and Anti-Corruption Centre provides two possible reasons for political corruption. It states that individuals