CIRCULATORY SYSTEM 1. INTRODUCTION The circulatory system is also known as the cardiovascular system. This system is a double circulatory closed system which transports blood via arteries, veins and capillaries to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation and to the rest of the body tissues in the systemic circulation. Since the blood travels to varying distances around the body, the blood vessels have to be adapted to overcome different pressures. The pressure changes in the four chambers on the heart (two atria’s and two ventricles) allow the blood to continuously flow in one direction.
When its full the pressure causes the bicuspid and tricuspid valves to open and blood flows into the ventricles. Contraction of each atrium now forces any remaining blood into the ventricles. The ventricles now contract (systole) and the atria relax (diastole). The pressure closes the bicuspid and tricuspid valves causing the first sound of the heartbeat. The contraction of the ventricles opens the semilunar valves, forcing blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta.
Thus, the pericardial cavity allows the heart movement to be flexible. The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart totally except at the inlet and outlet of the cardiac vessels, where they form two significant tubes. One of the tubes serves as an interconnection to the inferior and superior vena cava and the pulmonary veins, whereas the other connects the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Blood Supply and Innervation of the
• Systole is when the cardiac muscle contracts to push out the blood from the chamber they are in it. During ventricular systole the blood pressure increases in arteries. • Diastole is when the cardiac muscle is relaxed allowing allow the chamber to fill with blood. During ventricular diastole the blood pressure decreases in arteries. This leads to conclude that the higher blood pressure is the systolic pressure (for example 120 mmHg), and the lower blood pressure is the diastolic pressure (for example 80 mmHg).
The heart, blood, and blood vessels all form the circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system. As one of the most important systems in the human body, the circulatory system transports oxygen, nutrients, and hormones and removes any waste products. Without the circulatory system, your organs wouldn't be able to function, causing death. With the blood vessels taking blood around the body, the heart pumps all this blood. According to Ballard, "Inside the heart there are four spaces called chambers.
Total lung capacity (TLC) is the measure of how much air is in the lungs after a breath. Then the amount of tidal volume (TV) is how much air a person takes in during inspiration. An individual exhales naturally, but can also make themselves breath faster. When an individual forces an expiration it can be measured by forced expiratory volume (FCV), which is how much air a person forces out during their breath. (RV) which is known as residual volume is how much air remains in the lungs after a forced expiration.
CO2 is then expelled and O2 enters the bloodstream, from there the re-oxygenated blood flows into organs and tissues expelling CO2 from and replacing it with oxygen. The blood finally pumps back to the atrium where the process begins again. (University of Waikato) (See fig.5 ) In humans, blood enters the heart from the posterior and anterior veins vena cava which carries de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body into the right atrium. From the right atrium the blood flows into the right ventricle and through the tricuspid valve which shuts when the ventricle is full. The blood exits the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and then into the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDS) Cardiovascular diseases comprise ailments that include the blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries) or the heart, or together or diseases that disturb the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system, also named as the circulatory system, is the system that transports blood all over the human body. It is composed of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. It delivers oxygenated blood from the lungs and heart through the entire body by the arteries. Blood drives through the capillaries - vessels located between the veins and arteries.
The primary function of the respiratory system is gas exchange, which consists of movement of oxygen into the body and removal of carbon dioxide. To achieve this goal, respiration can be divided and four major functions. First of all, we have pulmonary ventilation, which means the inflow and outflow of air between the atmosphere and the lung alveoli; second, the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs between the alveoli and the blood; after this, these gases are transported in the blood and body fluids to and from the tissue cells. Finally, all these steps are controlled and regulated by respiratory center and receptors. (GUYTON, A.C.; HALL, J.E.
The blood seeps in the sinusoids on its way to the hepatic veins, and then to the vena cava. This filtration is ideal for hepatocytes to filter the blood, process and store nutrients, cleanse, and remove debris. 6. Cirrhosis leads to scarring and increased hydrostatic pressure in the hepatic portal vein. Explain why this increased venous pressure causes net filtration to increase in the hepatic capillaries, leading to ascites (swollen and fluid-filled interstitial space of the abdomen).