Throughout the novel, The Disappearing Spoon by author Sam Kean, numerous aspects of the chemical world were explored. While the majority of the first nine chapters focused on the formation of the Periodic Table and the natures of its elements, chapters 10 and 11 highlighted the use of elements in the biological realm. Chapters 10 and 11 provided a nice break from the prior chapters in which the author discussed depressing topics of poison and war. While Kean used chapter 10 to discuss the medical uses of elements in the body, he used chapter 11 to discuss how elements can trick the body into performing (or not performing) specific tasks.
Sadly there are many pediatric heart conditions in the world that are treated every day, and many more arise as well these cases include ASD, VSD, PDA and TOF. The first major condition being Atrial Septal Defect (ASD). This defect is actually in the septum the wall that separates the right and left sides of the heart. A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers is called an atrial septal defect, or (ASD). This is one of the least complex forms of congenital heart defect of the many in infants, and was one of the first types to actually be repaired surgically. Normally, low-oxygen blood entering the right side of the heart stays on the right side, and subsequently oxygen-rich blood stays on the left side of the heart, where it is then pumped to the body and tissues. When a defect or "hole" is present between the atria (or upper chambers of heart), some oxygen-rich blood leaks back to the right side of the heart. It then goes back to the lungs even though it is already rich enough in oxygen. Because of this, there is a significant increase in the blood that goes to the lungs overall.
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number twenty-nine. It is also a solid at room temperature. Copper was most likely the first element ever manipulated by humans. In fact, humans discovered copper during the Paleolithic era. Copper was also very important during the copper and bronze age. Copper is also a very important element in the medical field. Also, the united states penny was originally made from pure copper. Finally, the Statue of Liberty did not always look green.
Pediatric interventional cardiology is a passion and a dream which I hope one day to realize. During my first pediatric residency training, I realized the depth of my interest in cardiology. I found pleasure and interest in all the pediatric cardiology rotations; however, cardiac catheterization, despite the limited sophistication with which it was performed, captivated me. As there were no training opportunities available back home and few interventional procedures can be done due to lack of experience in congenital interventional cardiology. Therefore, I decided to pursue a second pediatric residency training in the USA to allow me the opportunity for further training in pediatric cardiology and eventually congenital cardiac intervention.
Hypothermia could not be used for extended periods of time without risking possible neurological damage to the patient. This made it an impractical mode of repair for birth defects of the heart that were of greater complexity because of the more extensive work required. In addition to this, Hypothermia did not reduce the flow of blood to the heart enough to provide the surgeons even close to a clear field of vision; it was also not a method that was comprehensive enough to be taught to other surgeons, while many surgeons did not have the skill to complete an operation using hypothermia in the first place due to all of its corresponding obstacles. Another major problem with the hypothermia method was that the temperature range that would not cause neurological damage to the patient was not yet known. Lillehei collaborated with colleagues on a revolutionary approach that was a potential solution to some of the faults associated with the hypothermia method: cross-circulation. In this process, the blood vessels of the patient would be fixed to those of a human donor of matching blood type. While the patient’s heart was open during surgery, the donor’s body would act as a blood oxygenator and the blood would be kept circulating via mechanical pump, in addition to the donor’s beating
In this paper I will talk about congenital heart defect (CHD). This is also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease. It is a problem in the structure of the heart. I will tell you how it is acquired, signs, symptoms, medications to help it, and about lab test done to keep track of it.
Chronic Heart Failure is a condition where the heart has failed to support the physiological circulation needed to provide the organs and tissues of the body with nutrients and oxygen (Peate & Dutton 2012). This condition usually occurs because the muscles of the heart have weakened or are too stiff to work. There are several causes of CHF, including heart attacks, high blood pressure, cardiomyopathy, heart valve problems and structural changes to the myocardium; yet the type of CHF depends on which part of the heart is affected and the extent of the damage (NICE 2010). There are around 900,000 people in the UK who suffer from heart failure and within a year 30-40% of patients will die due to heart failure. Statistics show that the survival rate for CHF is worse than breast or prostate cancer.
Pulmonary edema is a common condition seen in the hospital by respiratory care practitioners. It is important for respiratory care practitioners to have an understanding of the condition itself, along with the skill set to quickly recognize pulmonary edema. It is also important for respiratory care practitioners to stay current on the most effective treatment options available for patients with pulmonary edema.
Infective endocarditis is rare, but people with mitral stenosis have a greater risk of developing it. The American Heart Association (AHA) (2015) reports that in the past, patients with a congenital heart defect needed to be treated with an antibiotic one hour prior to dental procedures or operations of the mouth, throat, gastrointestinal genital, or urinary tract. However, in 2007 the American Heart Association changed its recommendations to only prescribing antibiotics before dental procedures in patients with the highest risk of developing infective endocarditis. These new guidelines included patients with prosthetic heart valves, history of endocarditis, a heart transplant with abnormal heart valve function, and certain congenital heart diseases or defects. The AHA (2015) guidelines for preventing infective endocarditis no longer recommend antibiotic treatment for patients who have procedures involving the reproductive, urinary or gastrointestinal
A microorganism is a microscopic living organism which is unicellular or multicellular. Microorganisms interact with human body continuously, but most tionof them do not cause any harm. Only few organisms are pathogenic to human beings. They may be a bacteria, virus, fungus or a parasite. Many of the bacteria are a part of the normal body flora and inhabit various areas in the body such as the oral cavity, nose, skin, nasopharynx, oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, urethra, vagina as well as the external ear. These organisms most of the time are non pathogenic, but in some cases especially in immunosuppressed patients, they may cause diseases. Bacteria that can cause infection are called pathogenic bacteria. Examples
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide ( Reddy 1993; Lloyd-Jones et al. 2009). According to WHO, 23.6 million deaths each year by 2030 are caused by cardiovascular disease. In Malaysia, diseases of the circulatory system are the leading cause of death in Ministry of Health (MoH) Hospitals in 2012. 40, 000 new cases per year for 28 million people in this country while for number of CAD cases for young people which is below 45 years old is increased every year. 95 % of the cases involved men. In general, younger subjects with coronary artery disease have multiple risk factors that tradition to this disease. They also have a different risk profile from the profile of older patients (Chouhan et al. 1993; Hoit et
Cadmium is present on the earth’s crust as heavy metal and its exposure in the environment is a very big challenge to environmentalist because cadmium is non-degradable in nature. In environment cadmium transfers from one trophic level to another and finally accumulated in human with toxic effects. There is an emerging need to remove the cadmium from the environment. Microbes are very helpful in this area to remediate the cadmium from the environment. Microorganisms used biotransformation and adsorption mechanisms for regulation of translocation of heavy metals. In present time, many research has been done on the toxicity of cadmium in microorganisms. Microorganisms release many types of organic and inorganic substances by which they can detoxify