Thermodynamics Research Paper

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HEAT, WORK AND EFFICIENCY

Thermodynamics, from the Greek word thermos, meaning heat and dynamikos, meaning power, deals with the form of energy and its transformation to do mechanical work. It also explains how is work related to heat and what does heat do with the object. During the energy-work transformation, a machine is needed, as a device or converter, to obtain work output, however, machines are never 100-percent efficient. This chapter tackles, Thermodynamics, which describes the basic functions and principles of heat engines as heat converter and their work output efficiencies.

Content Standard
 Demonstrate understanding of the relationship among heat, work, and efficency
Performance Standard
 Analyze how power
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The total energy of all the particles in an object is called thermal or internal energy. Objects do not contain heat, they just contain thermal energy made up of atoms, molecules and ions. When atoms are trapped in an object, atomic vibrations increase, resulting to internal energy. This internal energy once transferred is called heat.
Heat is a thermal energy that is transferred from a high temperature to a low temeprature or from a warmer to a cooler obect. Heat can now be transferred from a body to its surrounding or from its surrounding to the body. For example, an ice cube melts on your hand because the thermal energy of your hand is transferred to the ice cube. There is temperature difference between the two bodies, your hand losses thermal energy, while an ice cube gains thermal energy. This flow of energy is always associated with changes in the system and the surroundings, like changes in the temperature, in the state of matter and changes that result from the doing of work. Heat occurs in the system.
So, how can heat transfer be used to do work and work be involved the release of heat?
Heat Does
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Heat transfer happens from the hot system to the surrounding air of the cylinder. This transfer of heat to the air in the cylinder does work upon the piston, (compression stroke) driving it downward. A spark plug ignites in the mixture and the heated gas expands and pushes the piston down which moves the crankshaft of the car (power stroke). The back and forth movement of the piston within the cylinder results in the rotational motion of the crankshaft and the generation of the energy required to set the car in motion (exhaust stroke). In this case, the internal energy stored in the chemical (gasoline) is converted to thermal energy (the flow of heat) that results in the performance of

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