Heat Exchangers Research Paper

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Heat exchangers:
Heat exchangers are devices that simplify the exchange of heat among two fluids that are at diverse temperatures while keeping them from combining with each other.
Heat exchangers are normally used in practice in a wide scale of applications, from heating and air-conditioning systems in a house, to chemical proceeding and power production in large plants

Types of heat exchangers:
Heat exchangers are grouped in:
• Shell-and-tube heat exchanger (STHE), where one current goes alongside a group of tubes and the other inside an outer shell, parallel to the tubes, or in cross-flow (Fig. (1a) shows a classic example of STHE; information shown below).
• Plate heat exchanger (PHE), where corrugated plates are maintained in contact
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In terms of the least hydraulic diameter of the two flows
Plate heat exchangers
A plate heat exchanger, PHE, is a compacted heat exchanger where tinny corrugated plates (some 0.5 mm thick, bended 1 or 2 mm) are loaded in contact with each other, and the two fluids made to flow independently along contiguous channels in the corrugation (Fig. 1b). The setup of the staked plates may be by held gaskets, brazing (usually copper-brazed stainless steel), or bonding (stainless steel, copper, titanium), the most regular type being the first, for comfort of inspection and cleaning.
Moreover, a edge (end-plates and fixing rods) get hold together the plate stack and connectors (occasionally PFHE, standing for plate-and-frame heat exchanger, is used as an alternative of PHE).
Plate assembly is Proper channels, sometimes aided by the gaskets, control the flow of the two fluids, and allow parallel flow or cross flow, in any anticipated number of passes, one pass being most
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Considered as nominal heat transfer area, in spite of the real curved surfaces and misplaced space in gaskets and ports.
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers:
Shell & tube type heat exchangers are constructed of tubes (round or rectangular in general) fixed in shells (cylindrical, rectangular or arbitrary shape).
Many variations of this simple type is available.
The differences remain mainly in the detailed aspects of construction and provisions for differential thermal expansion among the tubes and the shell.

Shell types: TEMA (the Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association) put out standards describing how shell and tube exchangers should be constructed.
They describe a naming system that is commonly used. Shells are also usually purchased in standard sizes to control costs.
Inside the shell, baffles (divider plates) are set up to direct the flow around the tubes, increase velocity, and promote cross

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