The activation energy was calculated from the slope (Ea/RT) by linear plot of ln k on l/T, using the Arrhenius equation k = ln A- Ea/RT, where k is rate constant of the reaction at temperature T (in Kelvin), A is a constant and R is the universal gas constant. The catalytic reduction of 4-NP was studied at six different temperatures (25, 30, 35, 45, 55, 65 and 70oC) using olibanum gum capped AuNPs as catalyst. A linear relationship was found between ln k and the reciprocal temperature from which the activation energy was measured. A plot of ln k versus 1/T, shown in Figure. 10, is a linear curve for 4-NP reduction using AuNPs.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
The purpose of this experiment was to analyze the rate of the catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in regard to the effects of concentration and temperature. 2H2O2 (l) —I-—> 2H2O (l) + O2 (g) In part one of the experiment, catalyst KI was added to varying solutions of 3% hydrogen peroxide and DI water and the composition of hydrogen peroxide was observed. This was observed by collection the volume of oxygen gas produced during the decomposition, and measuring its volume. From that, volume of oxygen gas produced was plotted against time and a linear least square fit line was generate. From the line equation, rate was derived, rate is equal to the slope of the line.
The first experiment was a Synthesis reaction, this was done by burning the substance magnesium; the substances reacted to form one compound, which ended up being heavier than the first original mass of the magnesium, the final product was known as magnesium oxide. The second experiment that was conducted was the Decomposition reaction, which actually eliminated chemical elements by burning them off, therefore reducing the weight of the final product by 1.673 grams. The third experiment was known as single displacement, by adding the chemical hydrochloric acid to zinc it created a chemical reaction which actually increased the temperature, as well as the pressure within the flask. The last experiment that was conducted was known as double displacement, this experiment involved the exchange of bonds, between the two sodium hydroxide and nickel. The Nickel was forced to group together when it was placed into the sodium hydroxide, instead of mixing with the compound it would rather keep to
Marigona Krasniqi 15 October 2015 Contemporary Science: Chemistry Lab assignment Gas Laws Lab Part 1 – The effect of temperature on gas volume Problem: Which gas law describes these results (Paper assignment)? Observation/ Research: Charles’s Law According to Jacques Charles, “if the temperature of the gas increases, the volume of the gas also will be increased or other way around.” (Charles). This statement describes Charles Law. According to this law, “the Volume and Temperature are directly proportional and pressure is held constant” (Charles). This shows that V/T = k, where k is constant.
Introduction This lab was conducted at Station 8 in Room 103 of the Chemical Sciences and Engineering Building at Michigan Technological University. The primary objective of this lab was to: Find the viscosity in cP of 10 wt% sucrose, 20 wt% sucrose, 30 wt% sucrose, 40 wt% sucrose, 45 wt% sucrose, 50 wt% sucrose, 60 wt% sucrose, 65 wt% sucrose, and 2 mystery sucrose and water solutions at room temperature, 40°C, and 60°C. The secondary objectives of the lab were to: Find the dependence of viscosity in cP on the concentration in wt% sucrose and temperature in °C. Create functions for the relationships. Determine the concentrations of the two mystery solutions in wt% sucrose by using the functions found that relate viscosity in cP to concentration
Cooling process: By cooling down the material through some chemical reactions in which energy absorbing (endothermic) processes triggered by additives and/or the chemical release of water cool the substrate to a temperature below that required for sustaining the combustion process, e.g. magnesium hydroxide [26,13,20]. Coating process: By forming a protective layer or coating that prevents or shields the underlying combustible layer of material with a solid or gaseous protective layer from heat and oxygen necessary for the combustion process, e.g. phosphorous and boron compounds [26,13,20]. Dilution process: By incorporating inert substances (e.g.
The three trials reacted 27.95 mL, 26.61 mL, and 25.74 mL of potassium permanganate to determine 55.7%, 53.0%, and 51.3% respectively of oxalate in the compound with a 53.3% average. To calculate the empirical formula of the compound, the percent composition of the each piece of the compound needed to be found. A thermogravimetric analysis performed outside the lab determined 11.0% of the compound was water and an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy found 11.3% was iron. Potassium accounted for the remaining 24.4% of the compound. The compound’s empirical formula was determined to be FeK3(C2O4)3•3H2O.
It also confirmed the idea that molar mass of a solution could be determined through the freezing point depression formula as long as one knows the freezing point depression constant of the solvent used, the mass in kilograms for the solute-solvent mixture, and the change in freezing point from the addition of a solute. Lab Questions: What is the freezing point for lauric acid? What is the melting point for lauric acid? The freezing point for lauric acid in this experiment was 43℃. The melting point for lauric acid in this experiment was 50℃.
We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture. Aims of experiment • Determine the rate constants for hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl in solvent mixtures of different composition (50/50 V/V isopropanol/water and 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water) • Examine the effect of solvent mixture composition on the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl Introduction With t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, being a tertiary halogenoalkane, it is predicted that (CH3)3CCl reacts with water in a nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN1 mechanism), where Step 1 is the rate-determining step. The reaction proceeds in a manner as shown