Chamomile oil is mainly used as an anti-inflammatory drug. However, it is also effective against toothache and muscle pain. It may be either topically applied or inhaled or orally taken so as to relieve inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract. • Mandarin and Cypress
This occurs because excess nutrients can fuel the growth of algae blooms that block sunlight from reaching underwater grasses and, during decomposition, rob the water of oxygen that plants and animals need to survive. Certain species of algae that are common in bodies of water plagued by eutrophication can also contaminate shellfish. When consumed by humans, these diseased aquatic invertebrate cause paralytic shellfish poisoning: a potentially fatal disease. Unfortunately, though there are many drawbacks and negative effects on the water quality in the Bay, no real benefits are found in the water when agricultural pollution is present. The most destructive components of agricultural pollution are livestock manure, poultry litter, and chemical fertilizers.
As time goes by, people are racing to develop technologies in order to help solving problems, such as building the industries and all of its machines. However the industrial itself has several drawbacks such as the industrial waste. Sludge soil that contaminated by heavy metal is one of the examples of industrial waste. Heavy metals have a negative effect on human’s health, such as mental disorder. Exploration, transportation, and exploitation of crude oil can cause marine and terrestrial oil pollution.
Plant tissue culture provides major (macro), minor (micro), carbon source (sucrose) and trace amounts of organic additives vitamins, agar, and plant growth regulators (George et al., 2008). But , better understanding of the nutritional requirements of cultured cells and tissues can help to choose the most appropriate culture medium for the explants used because each variety, even explants at different parts requires different types of nutrition (Loyola-vargas, 2012). Among the media formulations, MS mediums are commonly used for most plant species and have high macronutrients. 3.1. Plant growth
The atmospheric scientist Paul Crutzen introduced the term "anthropocene" in the mid-1970s (Crutzen et al 2000). The term is sometimes used in the context of pollution emissions that are produced as a result of human activities but applies broadly to all major human impacts on the environment (Scott 2008).The sources of the contaminant provide pathways for the release of not only organic contaminants but also heavy metals, which can be highly toxic in very small quantities (Memon et al., 2001; Memon and Schroder, 2009). The study of metals in the marine environment has received considerable attention because of their biological significance as well as the possibility of their transfer to man
Heavy metals are those elements with l atomic density larger than 5 g/cm3. These are those metals in the periodic table with an atomic number greater than 20, excluding the alkali metals. This is due to the similarity of their environmental behavior and chemical properties. Many of them are trace metals in the earth crust and most of them are toxic even in very low concentrations . Heavy metals are not only toxic for human beings but they are also toxic for plants.Zinc is the heavy metal which is essiential for the human growth but in low dose.
Industrial revolution during last few decades is the main factor for enhancement of toxic metal contamination in the biosphere1. Heavy metal contamination is a serious environmental hazard for the agricultural soil, human, plants and animals. The most toxic heavy metals are Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Sn, Cr, Zn and Cu 2. These heavy metals are a group of 65 metallic elements with density greater than 5 gm/cm3. Among all heavy metals cadmium is one such heavy metal that is most hazardous 3 and has deleterious effects on agricultural ecosystem, environment and human health.
When mining gold it can cause erosion, the contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water. After they use harmful chemical to recover the gold and the copper, the leftover chemical is often dumped, which can contaminate the water. Gold in a cell phone can be recovered using powerful chemical like cyanide and nitric acids. The leftover chemicals are often dumped, which can contain the soil and water. Many gold mines often dump their toxic waste into natural bodies of water.
Heavy metal contamination has been a serious problem for the past decade. It is considered as one of the most dangerous types of aquatic pollutions because of its toxicity and accumulation by marine organisms (El Zokm, El-Gohary & El-Khalek, 2012). Many heavy metals find their way to bodies of water through a wide range of mechanisms and pathways, including to the air such as during combustion, extraction, and processing and to surface waters via runoff and releases from storage and transport as well as to the soil and hence into ground waters and crops. There is no clear definition of what a heavy metal is: they are most commonly defined as those having a specific density of more than 5 g/cm3.The rapid industrialization, agricultural and aquaculture
Some heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, and silver are unknown for metabolic activities and other physiological activities in the body. Heavy metals release into natural environments by weathering process and it is balanced in the soil naturally. But due to some anthropogenic activities, this balanced has been corrupted. Both Inadequate supply and excess supply of various nutrients cause a variety of deficiencies and diseases and syndromes. High concentrations are toxic to animals and plants.