Babchishin, which used people that have been labeled as sex offenders already. The overall goal of this research to find differences amongst this group and the different categories that lie within it as well, by using scales such as sexy versus not sexy or erotic versus non-erotic type categories (KELLY). Being that children are commonly victims of sexual abuse, the study stated that they set out to find more answers and predictors of why this happens and how they found early on in their research that a key predictor of potential sexual molestation is the amount of attraction that a person has towards children (KELLY). From the research done, they found that out of this group of men, there was a larger amount of attraction to girls rather than women and that there was not a large difference in results regarding the attraction of boys to men. It is stated that results found were consistent with the relation of sexual attraction and those of which who were categorized as pedophiles, which I think could be used in the future as a type of screening of individuals for a preventative
She could identify the appropriate way to interact with staff when shown scenarios. She could not identify the appropriate age to date the opposite sex. Summary: Catherine functions within the Mild range of Intellectual Disability. She has a diagnosis of Intermittent Explosive Disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
Fetishism and paraphilia can be defined as a longstanding and persistent sexual interest that describes a powerful eroticization of a part of another person’s body (feet, hair, breasts), non-living objects (shoes, clothing, objects), (Kafka, 2010) or activities and experiences (sadism, masochism, voyeurism, and pedophilia) (Friedman & Downey, 2000). Many individuals view their fetishes to be a healthy expression of sexuality; however, it is considered a paraphilia disorder if it produces significant psychological distress or impairment of functioning (Dawson, Bannerman, & Lalumière, 2016). For the purpose of this paper, fetishism and paraphilia are defined as one in the same. Many fetishes are accepted by society such as seductive clothes,
Ondersma et al. (2001) makes a counter argument toward Rind, stating “Most child abuse researchers have long believed that CSA, like other forms of maltreatment, is associated with a wide range of reactions and outcomes (from devastation to no detectable harm), may or may not be traumatic, and may or may not lead to mental health problems in the short of long term” (p. 708). As I mentioned before, childhood sexual abuse is an umbrella under which many experiences for various individuals may fall. For example, a 7 year old boy being molested multiple times over a 2 year period by his uncle would be considered childhood sexual assault. Also, a 14 year old girl who was coerced into having a sexual relationship with a 30 year old man would also be considered childhood sexual assault.
Studies of sexual violence reports within the media have shown that certain stories encompass inappropriate language, resulting in aggrandised and titillating articles. The terminology exerted for reports of sexual crimes can often convey the implication of ‘consensual sex’ rather than that of a criminal act. Words and phrases used throughout news reporting to depict sexual violence can refract from its true nature, for example, the term ‘intercourse’ is occasionally used to signify the act of rape and violent sexual assault, in some instances, the offender has been described as ‘having intercourse with’ or ‘having sex with’. In some instances sexual assaults are often referred to as ‘fondling’, so the crime appears as affectionate rather than
This can be teenagers, other children, and adults. There are two types of sexual abuse - contact abuse and non-contact abuse. Contact abuse is when a child is touched in a sexual way or forced to get involved in sexual activity with another individual. Over 90% of those who were sexually abused were abused by someone they know. Those who cause the abuse can be an older or younger sibling, a family friend, a parent, an adult caregiver, another child such as a school friend, or a teenager.
Feelings of vulnerability, fear, grief, anger, and social shame may take over victims of psychological harm. Post-traumatic stress disorder can also be a result of psychological harm. Physical and psychological harms are impossible to calculate, they may last temporarily or a lifetime. On top of physical and psychological effects, victims may also face more suffering from secondary victimization. Secondary victimization is victimization caused through inappropriate institutions and people like family, the media, and the justice system.
In addition to its ineffectiveness at correcting children’s behaviour, spanking can lead to life long side effects. Long term effects of corporal punishment that children develop include mental health issues, increase in delinquent behaviour during childhood, criminal behaviour and negative parent-child relationships.(Sage Journals, 2000) In addition to long term side effects that corporal punishment has on children, national professional organizations agree and strive to eliminate corporal punishment. The American Academy of Paediatrics
The Impact of Sexual Assault Sexual assault is defined as “Forced sexual activity, an attempt at forced sexual activity, or unwanted sexual touching, grabbing, kissing, or fondling” (Perreault, & Brennan, 2010). It is an event that causes significant short and long-term impact for many victims. It is important to recognise that just as the nature of the assault is highly variable, so is the emotional response to sexual. Individual characteristics (personal resilience and resourcing), assault characteristics (level of violence and the nature of relationship with the perpetrator), and personal trauma history can all influence the impact of sexual assault for the victim (Baker et al., 2012; Starzynski & Ullman, 2014). Some victims experience little or no psychological impact while others will experience a significant disturbance of emotional and psychological wellbeing and daily function.
They can have a better understanding of both female and male anatomy. Therefore, a student can know what is appropriate and inappropriate touching on the opposite sex. If the school doesn 't educate the children, many will go to misleading sources such as pornography or anything else on the internet. According to Pros and Cons, “it is a known fact that teenagers today are sexually active, therefore, sex education can help them understand the benefit of abstinence in the early years of it can at least teach them how to be responsible sexually active people” (Pros and Cons). Students who receive condoms are mostly to use them or not have sex.
The individual may engage in behaviors which skirt the edges of the law, or manipulate others (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Usually Those who are diagnosed with Antisocial personality disorder have also been diagnosed with Conduct disorder at a young age. When having this disorder, people tend to act on impulse instead of thinking things through which may cause them to make bad decisions. People tend to be irresponsible, which has been shown throughout the defendant’s
In some cases, they can have a history of sexual abuse within the family which is the cycle of abuse argument (Finklehor;1984), which can be the reason that leads to them re-enacting their childhood on another, the explanations suggest four various reasons being anger over the abuser, identification with them, career progression and psychological damage from previous abuse (Howitt;1995). With the cycle of abuse being rooted in the psychological development of the person due to their lack of empathy and their addiction to sexual deviant behaviour which plays a role in how the cycle is developed (Bagley et al;1994). Paedophilias use this cycle as an argument to explain their behaviour although there can be issues of how credible this is such as when it comes to female sex offenders when it comes to explaining them, as it is considered that females are more likely to be a victim of sexual abuse as there are more reported male sex offenders than females, which raises the issue of weather female offenders work the same way that males do or dose society see female sex offenders not as serious as a they perceive males
According to the article called” Psychopathy traits and parental dysfunction in sexual offending and general delinquent adolescent males” by Jason D. Netland and Michael H. Miner, Netland and Miner stated that therapists have to understand the behavior of sex offenders in order to create an effective prevention and treatment services. Young sex offenders and non-sex offenders have many psychological similarities. One of the similarities is anxiety. Another psychological similarity is attention problems. Sex offenders and non-sex offenders also have psychological similarities in poor relationships with their peers and families.
In the same article it was also stated that, “Researchers found that childhood maltreatment was a risk factor for officially recognized delinquency, violent self-reported delinquency and moderate self-reported delinquency. Overall, child maltreatment appeared to be a risk factor for more serious delinquency, such as assaults, but not lesser forms of delinquency, such as underage drinking.” Another form of juvinile behavior they partake in, often tends to lead to drug abuse. They grew up with it being okay to hit someone just for the sake of it. They become used to the idea that these things are normal and they rarely look to see what the consequences of their actions will be in the near future.