Angela Carter’s texts vehemently attacks the stereotypical notions asserted by the culture with a sturdy intention of deconstructing the collective order of society. There is an excessive use of violence, sexual brutality, pornographic contents and exuberance of female power in Carter’s writing. Makinen addresses Carter as the “avant-garde literary terrorist of feminism” (2) for savagely attacking the cultural stereotypes which is both disturbing and alienating. Carter’s The Bloody Chamber and Other Stories is a set of re-structured fairy tales with an obtrusive purpose of altering the formula set by the traditional stories. Carter reassembles the well known fairy tales to an adult version of those tales with a feministic angle to explicate
Indeed, the female monster displays the cultural anxieties and fears of the Victorian society. Women are confined into acutely defined binaries that overtly demarcate restrictive boundaries between proper and improper. These socially constructed binaries perpetuated by the dominant patriarchal discourse align the excessive expression of female sexuality with monstrosity while dictating appropriate feminine attributes and desirable gender-roles. Yet, the transgressive sexuality and liberated passion of a woman features a “deviance from sexual norms was identified as both a symptom and cause of degeneration, so that by posing a challenge to traditional gender roles, liminal subjects […] were seen as causes of social unrest and potential threats to national health (199). In fact, the female monster violates the essentialist conception of female nature and constructed ideology of “natural” and “proper” femininity and cultural norms of sexuality.
It could be argued that Rochester’s malevolent wife, Birtha Mason represents the complete oppression of a woman, by patriarchal domination In both novels, there is a prominent power struggle between partiarcle masculine power and famine inferiority. Referring back to their pertinent feminist reading of jane eye, Gilbert and Gubar note that in male-authored books, if women are not categorized as ‘angels’, then they are villainized as a ‘monster’ (Sandra Gilbert & Susan Gubar, 1979). Alike both female protagonist, the male figure uses zoomorphic diction to describe Birtha, depicting her as an almost primal being, who has lost all intellectual communication, and instead resorted to ‘snarl’ and “crawls like an animal.”(JE). In their pertinent feminist reading of Jane Eyre, Gilbert and Gubar describe bertha mason as Jane’s “truest and darkest double.’ (G&G). Their argument closely relates to the gothic motif of doubling, in which Birtha represents the potential outcome of Jane if she enters the marriage from a subordinated position.
Darcy constructs a barrier between the two, which results in a feeling of absolute temptation and anger. In effect, they can see each other’s love much more easily than earlier in the novel. Elizabeth Bennet is portrayed as coming from a family that is inferior in rank; they inherit this stereotype through aspects of wealth, property, and marriage. On the other hand, Mr. Darcy has a social ranking of complete superiority within the society; he comes from a family that has the highest of standards among those three similar aspects to the Bennet family. In Pride and Prejudice, Austen creates a society that discriminates Elizabeth with her decision to eventually marry Mr. Darcy.
Lust and Distrust A tale of passion, the Shakespearean play Othello discusses consequences of patriarchy that surface within romantic relationships. Conflicts of jealousy are sprouted from the seed of assumption, which both Desdemona falls victim to once planted in Othello’s mind. The short lived joy of marriage is overpowered by doubt and manipulation, resulting in fatality. Less dynamic in comparison, Emilia and Bianca’s partners mistreat the women regularly; signifying faults formerly present in each relationship. Each female character possesses a flaw as seen by their male counterparts, who attempt to restrict their sexuality, further undermining their power in a male-dominated society.
For instance in the first chapter of Pride and Prejudice, Mr. Bennet insults women by saying that his daughters apart from Lizzy “are all silly and ignorant like the other girls”. Austen here makes a statement about women and their intelligence. Women themselves show willingness and acceptance of the patriarchal values. They do not resist and acknowledge the belief that men are superior and this is clearly shown in Pride and Prejudice when women accept their fate. At surface reading Mrs. Bennet could be seen as a hypochondriac women but literary theory has suggested that women were seen as inferior and always complaining.
Similarly, as with Ophelia, franticness is an express that is connected with existing outside of the normative boundaries of a socially gendered part. In this state, despite the fact that Lady Macbeth originates from the gentry and is presently Queen, her position becomes emphatically connected with that of the witches, who are outsiders. Janet Adelman (1995, 105) contends Lady Macbeth's affiliation with the witches turns into an exemplification of female power and that the play 'gets to be a representation of primitive feelings of dread about male identity and self-sufficiency itself, about those approaching female habitations who threaten to control one's activities and one's psyche, to constitute one's extremely self, even at a separation'. The physical separating of the witches is mirrored in the mental separation that Lady Macbeth makes by placing herself past the limits of typical Christian talk in her discourse 'Come you spirits' by articulating an assurance that rejects the developments of ordinary maternal feeling, she similarly places herself past the regularizing limits of gendered social
In the XIX century, Thomas Hardy brings the gender issue to Tess of the d'Urbervilles, showing that the condition of women in Victorian England brings unique implications to their trajectory as an individual. The women in Tess of the d'Urbervilles are, in general, submissive to the patriarchal order of society. The supremacy of man over woman in life dramatises the crisis of values in Tess of the d'Urbervilles, placing the heroine, Tess, at the mercy of the masculine judgment. Tess is a victim of male prepotency. She succumbs to the abuses of Alec d'Urberville and afterwards adopts a servile posture towards her husband, even after being godforsaken and banned from social life.
The Place of Women Authors in the Patriarchal World Victorian social boundaries force women to be enclosed, repressive and “angel” figure in the world of male domination. Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar criticized on stereotypical roles of women that were given by patriarchy in “The Mad Woman in the Attic”. The word "madness" has critical value in the article because hysteria was originally named for female patients who complaint a lot so a direct link between women and madness was formed in patriarchal world. Additionally, hysteria roots from "uterus" in Greek that also show the direct link between madness and femininity. They mainly focused on that female figures were illustrated as only an angel or a monster from males’ mount that turned
It’s English translation by Alok Bhalla was published in 2002. Bhisham’s interpretations of mythology shows us how women have functioned as a substitute for money whenever there was a clash of male egos. Madhvi narrates a story of Yayati’s daughter who is used like a pawn by three egoistic men for their self-interest, her father, Yayati, Gaalav, her lover, Vishwamitra, her lover’s guru. I intend to show that the play Madhvi is a scathing comment on patriarchal society and Sahni has conspicuously shown unambiguous conditions of women, even though the story is based on characters older than 5000 years but still alive. In this paper I will situate Madhvi in its social context where women have no right to fulfill their desires, they are suppressed and restricted by the norms and the rules of the society.