Realist main focus is History. And for survival the competition is important. There are three types of Realism: 1) Classical Realism: Any action from the state in the International politics is due to the human nature. 2) Structural Realism: The International politics depends on International system i.e. states are in Anarchy.
Therefore, the reasons for the behavior of countries are to be found in the very structure of the international system defined by three parameters. The first is the organizational principle of the system, which can either be anarchic or hierarchical. What significantly separates the international system from other systems is anarchy, the absence of a global state, from which it follows that nobody is "called to command and no one is obliged to obey". Another feature is that there is no division of labor in the international system; all countries have the task of taking care of themselves. The third characteristic is that the international structure is marked by a certain number of poles, during which a struggle for domination takes place.
In between these systems is the hegemony which defines the contemporary IR. According to Watson, there cannot be case in which there is absolute anarchy or hierarchy but between the two which he used pendulum as a metaphor. International politics is explained through the terms of empire, dominion, suzerainty and independence. Order prevails in the empire and away from the core of the empire exist the anarchic system. Watson argues against the notion that the interactions between the independent states in IR is far from possibility.
Critical geopolitical scholars now acknowledge that their approaches to world politics are self-consciously situated within a body of conceptual and methodological assumptions about the world. The theories on world politics are not detached from the world we seek to describe and explain, and by acknowledge this point critical theorists may contribute to the development of practical ideas regarding progressive social and political change and how it can be promoted (see Table
Statement of the Thesis Cosmopolitanism explores what democracy is and how it can be applied in local, national and the global level. Realism on the other hand is a school of International Relations theory based on the concepts of anarchy and power politics. In this paper I will examine the realist’s views upon cosmopolitanism and specifically the model of federalism and I will argue that realists believe that the possibility of a future associated with a form of a global polity is a utopian idea rather than something feasible mainly due to the way the world is working. Analysis and Explanation of Thesis Beginning the analysis of my thesis I should first define Democracy in order to link it with the idea of a global polity. For this I will
Multinational firms are said to be important agents of change and of what Schumpeter portrayed, Craetive Destruction. Hymer’s original intention was to answer the question: How is it that a national firm can start an operation in a foreign country? Internalization theory tries to answer a somewhat different question: Why is this question carried out by the firm itself, and not sold to a local firm through the issue, for instance, a licence? Discuss with examples. The response to the latter question requires an elaboration of what a firm is entirely about and why it is natural to internalize activities within a firm.
Its importance and power to dictate actions between states is often debated and various theories have been used to describe its significance. A realist theory would suggest that states are the only relevant actors in international politics. Realists believe that since there is no central authority to govern these
Realist school of thought considers states-nations as the main actors in international relations and their main concern is the study of power. Morgenthau laid emphasis on the importance of “the national interest” .In his book Politics among nations he wrote "the main signpost that helps political realism to find its way through the landscape of international politics is the concept of interest defined in terms of power”. Morgan thou is considered as a classical realist whereas Kenneth Waltz is a Neo realist. • REALISM AND POLITICS AMONG NATIONS (1948): Morgenthau’s intellectual trajectory was more complicated than it was thought and was shown by scholarly assessments. His realism explained moral considerations and he favored supranational control of nuclear weapons in last part of his life .He opposed the U.S. role in the Vietnam War.
F.S Northedge says that foreign policy implies “the use of political influence in order to induce other state to experience”. Prof. Joseph Frankel says that “foreign policy consists decisions and action which involve to some appreciable extents relation between one state and others”. According to Rode, Anderson and Cristal foreign policy involves the formulation and implementation of principles of groups which shapes to the behavior pattern of a state in its negotiation with the others state, to protect or promote its vital interest. 1) Determinants of Foreign Policy: The foreign policy of a country is compounded of many factors and forces. Some of them are permanent, others temporary.
Kenneth Waltz, who is considered to be the founder of neo- or structural realism, based his arguments on system theories. The international system, as he claimed, “is generated by the interactions of its principal parts” (i.e. dominant states) (Waltz 1979, 72), which in turn would shape the behavior of small states. Arnold Wolfers and James Rosenau had similar assumptions on small states’ foreign policy. Wolfers argues that the necessity to analyze the internal decision making and domestic politics is more crucial while studying the foreign policy of great powers, while Rosenau highlights the international environment as more of an important factor to consider in analyzing the foreign policy of small states due to the importance of systemic factors (Elman 1995,