Conflict theories, such as Marxism and feminism focus on power struggles and differences, for example, class conflict, and for the most part question historical ideologies. It is a macro level critique and study of society (Collins, 1971). Many sociologists and thinkers have defined the class in different ways. Marx defined class in terms of the political and economic structures of power, he believed that power came directly from economic and political conditions and the people with power usually exploit the ones without power. He divided society into three classes the bourgeoisie, the petty bourgeoisie and the proletariat (Grant, 2001).
This is because capitalism has three significant disadvantages. The first is that capitalism is outdated. Capitalism was useful at one point but its usefulness eventually ran out which would lead to the establishment of a freer Communist society. The second reason is that capitalism leads to isolation. According to Marx, under capitalism the workers were isolated for four different reasons:- • The workers are labourers who do not own the means of production or the products they create which is why they are isolated from the product.
Existentialism finds the answer to the absurdities present in the world including issues about human freedom. Dudley (ND) averred that Kant’s idea of freedom is inclusive than the libertarian thought. Further, Kant illuminated that choices are determined by autonomous will and are not subject to restrictions. Likewise, there is freedom of the will and that will is subject to the condition of genuine freedom of choice. Kant wrote the Metaphysics of Ethics (1797) where he described his ethical system that is based on a belief that the reason is the final authority for morality.
This essay covers the specific problems of Althusser 's worldview and aims to demonstrate that the general ideas described in Althusser 's “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses” are still applicable to the modern pluralistic society, but do require some minor modifications. Althusser differentiated between two types of ISAs that make the capitalist mode of production possible. The first one was called Repressive State Apparatus(RSA) and was comprised of various types of executive state structures and institutions. The RSAs, according to Althusser, are mainly used to maintain a monopoly of power inside of the capitalist society and at the same time to apply that monopoly in order to sustain capitalist class structures. The second one was called Ideological State Apparatus(ISA) and was working not by power or politics but rather by ideological influence.
The Libertarian Theory becomes the basis of modification of social responsibility theory, and is the opposite of Authoritarian Theory in terms of the relationship of human position to the state. Man is no longer considered free to be led and directed. Truth no longer belongs to the nature of man. And the press is considered a partner in finding the truth. The characteristics of the Libertarian press of a person free to act by being limited by applicable law which they have agreed upon through their representation in government.
Through identifying, defining, and understanding the key concepts of Marxism, the preconditions and contradictions of a capitalist society become more prominent. The contradictions of a capitalist society will be introduced through identifying and defining; radical change by societal transformation exploitation, conflict between different social groups (the bourgeoisie and proletariat), and exploitation. The two contradictions “exploitation” and “conflict between social groups” can be explained complimentary to one another as a result of being closely related. Key concepts such as; historical materialism, means of production, class consciousness, superstructure, and alienation will be referred to in order to aid the further understanding of Marxism, which in turn will address the preconditions of a capitalist society. The preconditions of capitalism can be understood as the requirements for Marxism - what formulates the views of Marxism – due to Marx working hard to create a theory for the capitalist economy.
An ideology is a form of social or political philosophy in which practical elements are as prominent as theoretical ones; it is a system of idea that aspires both to explain the word and to change it. Ideology is a different form of beliefs about man, society and the universe. It is understood as a way of thinking abouth the cultural and social programme of a political movement launched to emancipate suppressed group from the exploitation of more dominate social class. Ideology is a term developed in the Marxist tradition to talk about how cultures are structured in ways that enable the group holding power to have the maximum control with the minimum of conflict. An ideology begins with the belief that things can be better and it a plan with the help of which a society can be improved.
John Locke and John Stuart Mill’s dilemma in swimming to the islands of Fatherland and Bourgeoisville demand them to consider several key elements of each civilization. The island of Fatherland reflects a Fascist regime and is led by a dictator. Bourgeoisville is an industrial capitalist society, where there is a revolution brewing in the working class. Despite their different views on equality and the role of government, Locke and Mill both will swim to Bourgeoisville. This decision would stem from their ideological parallels, specifically the importance of property, as well as the potential for revolution.
Nozick’s theory cannot be applied without starting from a just beginning; a different theory of justice might have to be created that is not sensitive to past injustices that we cannot correct. Thus the historical nature of Nozick’s theory could be described as a weakness in his
Such systems treated man merely as a passive observer of the external world. By contrast, existentialist man took in the whole spectrum of existence known directly and concretely by not just thinking but as an initiator of action and a centre of feeling. The doctrine existence precedes essence shows how man should locate reality in the concrete actualities of experience. Philosophers of existence distrust intellectual abstractions and locate reality in the concrete actualities of experience. As to the question of deciding issues of meaning and value, the existentialist says that man creates meaning and value by his freely willed choices and actions.