Helicobacter Pylori Literature Review

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A review of Helicobacter pylori causing gastritis and treatment
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancer. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. H. pylori infection is associated with a decreased risk of some other cancers, including gastric cardia cancer (cancer in the top portion of the stomach) and esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re infection and the high cost of
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This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine and plant based development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Treatment; Natural products; Probiotics; Nutraceuticals
1. Introduction Gastric cancer was once considered a single entity. Now scientists divide this cancer into two main classes: gastric cardia cancer (cancer of the top inch of the stomach, where it meets the esophagus) and non-cardia gastric cancer (cancer in all other areas of the stomach), Infection with H. pylori is the primary identified cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori is a perhaps one of the most common human infectious agents worldwide. Genetic sequence analysis has indicated that human being has coevolved with H. pylori for more than 58,000 years (Linz et al 2007) worldwide gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related infection
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The impact of H. pylori infection on gastric malignancies may depend on the anatomic location. Cancers of the proximal stomach (cardia and gastroesophageal junction) have different epidemiological and pathophysiological characteristics and are not commonly found in high H. pylori endemic areas (Kamangar et al 2006). For example, adenocarcinoma derived from gastroesophageal junction may be associated with neither H. pylori infection nor Barrett’s esophagus (Kamada et al
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