As we known, during flight, there are four forces acting on the airplane. Those are LIFT, DRAG, THRUST, and WEIGHT. In order to make the wings to move in the air, of course, the plane itself has to move. A helicopter works by having its wings move through the air while the body stays still. The helicopter's wings are also called Main Rotor Blades.
Any change in the aileron geometry or deflection will change the roll rate; which subsequently varies constantly the roll angle. The deflection of any control surface including the aileron involves a hinge moment. The hinge moments are the aerodynamic moments that must be overcome to deflect the control surfaces. The hinge moment governs the magnitude of augmented pilot force required to move the corresponding actuator to deflect the control surface. To minimize the size and thus the cost of the actuation system, the ailerons should be designed so that the control forces are as low as
The landing gear of an aircraft supports it during ground maneuvering operations, by providing a suitable suspension system and also cushions the landing impact. It features a shock strut which dissipates the kinetic energy associated with the vertical velocity on landing and provides ease and stability for ground maneuvering’s. To put it down roughly, an a/c touches down with vertical velocity of about 2 to 3 m/s, and the vertical impact load is contained within 2 to 3 times the static reaction by having suitable energy absorbing and dissipating means in the landing gear. Some gears have to undergo sequenced shape change, such as retraction or planing in order to fit in the wheel well when retracted. Another example is shrinking of the shock
Also, the aircraft wings have to deal with aero-elastic and structural loads as well. Therefore, the aircraft wings must be designed structurally and aerodynamically well for providing good overall performance in all phases of flight. The weight of the wing is a considerable parameter while considering the overall performance. Weight reduction of aircraft wing will increase the flight performance. Use of isotropic material will add more weight while comparing to the composite material.
The external load may be caused by the forced deflection of the elastic body, such as the deformation of an aircraft wing or control surface, or by gust load disturbance. In some cases the limit cycle oscillations can become unstable and the lead to large amplitudes. This is often called flutter which is a dynamic aeroelastic instability in which small excited in the flow stream around aeroelastic model may produce oscillations of large amplitude. It is an aeroelastic phenomenon concerning the oscillation of aircraft wings and control surfaces that has been detected since the early days of
Mechanical or physically worked flight control frameworks are the most essential system for controlling a flying machine. They were utilized as a part of right on time airplane and are presently utilized as a part of little air ship where the air motion facilitating powers are not exorbitant. A manual flight control framework utilizes a gathering of mechanical parts, for example, pushrods, pressure links, pulleys, stabilizers, and here and there fastens to transmit the strengths connected to the cockpit controls specifically to the control surfaces. In light flying machine the control surfaces are moved by the force of the pilot's muscles. Each one control surface is joined straightforwardly to the control section or rudder pedals with an arrangement
Introduction Helicopters are also known as rotary wing aircraft. Their rotating wing is known as the main rotor. It is a type of rotorcraft. In this thrust and lift are supplied by rotors. The helicopter is capable of direct vertical take-off and landing and it can also hover in a fixed position.
 A major part of aeronautical engineering is aerodynamics, the science of passage through the air. With the increasing activity in spaceflight, nowadays aeronautics and astronautics are often combined as aerospace engineering. The science of aerodynamics deals with the motion of air and the way that it interacts with objects in motion, such as an aircraft. The study of aerodynamics falls broadly into three areas: Incompressible flow occurs where the air simply moves to avoid objects, typically at subsonic speeds below that of sound (Mach 1). Compressible flow occurs where shock waves appear at points where the air becomes compressed, typically at speeds above Mach
The objective of the CIT system is to increase the fuselage damping response (at 2.0 to 4.0 Hz) by actively controlling the rudder and elevators. Very heavy planes such as A380 and 747-8 already have some inherent gust damping due to their considerable weight. The Airbus A380 aircraft (introduced in 2007), the largest civilian aircraft, also features a form of GLA system . The Boeing 787 aircraft (introduced in 2011) uses a Honeywell-supplied flight control system enables the 787's three-axis fly-by-wire, using the aircraft's ailerons for manoeuvre load alleviation and elevator for active gust load alleviation. The 787's wing also adapts to changing gross weight conditions, optimising the camber of the wing through the trailing edge variable camber (TEVC) system moving it up or down by 1.5e_SDgr from its neutral position
Structural and Thermal Optimization of Landing Gear Brake Disc of Boeing 737 1Yash Vashi Student, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Contact: +91-9597-729270 Abstract: The aircraft landing gear undergoes severe stress and temperature gradient within a short span of time from braking to full stop. The kinetic and the potential energy of the aircraft is converted to the rotational energy by the wheels, which is then transformed to heat energy through braking systems. The current generation of braking systems consist of an array of stators and rotors lined up together in a T-formation incorporated within the hub of the wheel. The rotors are connected to the wheel hub via the torque tube and rotate with the wheel. When the brakes are applied, the piston housed in the brake presses the rotors against the stators and the kinetic energy of the wheels is converted into heat.