Anatomy and Physiology Assignment 2 – Essay The Lymphatic System The lymphatic system has three primary functions. It drains excess interstitial fluid from tissue spaces and returns it to the blood, enabling circulatory blood volume to be maintained; transports lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract; and is responsible for the body’s adaptive (specific) immunity, ie. defences against microbes that breach its innate (non-specific) immunity (eg. skin, fever, inflammation): it adjusts or adapts to perform specific responses to specific microbes. In this essay, I will focus on the lymph nodes, particularly their role in adaptive immunity, and how they relate to the lymphatic system as a whole,
Here the apical membrane form bile and the basolateral membrane face blood. All newly synthesized apical and basolateral proteins are sent to the golgi to the basolateral membrane. From here both proteins are endocytosed in the same vesicle,but take different pathways.They both are also sorted into transport vesicles where some move to the basolateral and others move to fuse with the apical membrane. An importance of transcytosis is that through endothelial cells, drugs can pass through the BBB into the brain and also avoid efflux by ABC transporters(Georgieva,Hoekstra and Zuhorn,
There are two separate clotting pathways, the intrinsic and the extrinsic. These eventually join together to form the common pathway. The adsorption of the components of the contact system facilitates the activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. This results in the formation of thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin monomers. The thrombin also promotes platelet aggregation.
Coagulation system is a process to prevent blood loss from the body. Hemostasis process occurred in three phases, vascular platelet phase, activation of the coagulation cascade and the activation of a control mechanism. Mostly, the system is triggered by a damaged blood vessel. After vascular injury, rapid vasoconstriction will serve to reduce blood flow. At the same time, von Willebrand factor (vWf) will act as a bridge between endothelial collagen and platelet surface receptor glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) which will promote platelet adhesion (Green, 2006).
Thrombosis Formation Thrombosis is the formation of a thrombus within the vascular system. Development of thrombosis after vessel wall injury is characterised by the deposition of platelets, tissue factor and fibrin. A thrombus is a solid or semi-solid mass, which consists of aggregated platelets, that form a platelet plug and a mesh of cross-linked fibrin protein. The formation of a thrombus is a healthy response to blood vessel injury intended to prevent blood loss, and is the first step in restoring haemostasis. Blood vessel damage can also be caused by the interaction between a foreign material (medical device) and the endothelium lining of the vessel.
INTRODUCTION The major goals of periodontal therapy includes elimination of infection and controlling inflammation in order to arrest the progression of disease, and also the regeneration of lost tissues. Various biomaterials have been used for the treatment of intrabony defects and have demonstrated variable results . Recently, biological modifiers (growth factors) demonstrated their ability to stimulate cells which are located in periodontal defect and resulted in proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells . Biological modifiers are materials or proteins that have the potential to modify the host tissue so as to enhance wound healing process. These growth factors comprise platelet derived (PDGF), insulin
Thus, any dysregulation in apoptosis will act as a contributing factor for various diseases. CD59 death receptor (mediator in the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis) has been implicated in several syndromes such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), liver failure and stroke. For example, in MS patients, studies have revealed that affected individuals have elevated levels of CD59 in cerebrospinal fluids. Neuronal apoptosis is seen in post mortem tissues from patients who suffered from neurodegenerative disorders such Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In patients suffering from Alzheimer’s, alterations in expression of genes related to apoptosis (such as Bcl-2 and caspases) were seen along with increased DNA damage.
Use antiseptic agents for cleansing skin or mucous membranes before surgery, cleaning wounds, or doing handrubs or surgical handscrubs with an alcohol-based antiseptic product. Use safe work practices such as not recapping or bending needles, safely passing sharp instruments, and suturing (when appropriate) with blunt needles. Safely dispose of infectious waste materials to protect those who handle them and prevent injury or spread of infection to the community. Infection control measures in family planning unit The consistent use of recommended infection prevention practices is A critical component of quality health services, as well as a basic right of every patient, client, or staff member in a health care setting. Although there is only a minimal risk of infection associated with IUD use, studies have shown that it is often related to the insertion procedure (ARHP 2008), rather than to the IUD itself.
These conditions may denature the enzyme, decreasing its rate of reaction. A conformational change to the activity site of an enzyme will cause the activity of the enzyme to decline significantly. This is because substrate a change in the conformational of the active site of an enzyme prevents the substrate from binding to the enzyme. Sodium chloride affects the charged interactions interactions between the amino acids of the enzyme, deteriorating the active site of the enzyme. However, the enzyme will only deteriorate if there is a high concentration of sodium chloride and not if S3odium chloride is simply present.
Hemostasis Hemostasis is the process which halts bleeding after an injury. During hemostasis, the initial wound stimulates vasoconstriction in the wound bed to diminish blood loss while the exposure of collagen from the wound site causes the activation, aggregation and adhesion of circulating platelets to the damaged endothelium. This results in the degranulation of the adhered platelets that eventually formed the platelet plug via a positive feedback mechanism. Next, coagulation occurs where various factors secreted by damaged tissues and activated platelets activate prothrombin activator that catalyse the conversion of prothrombin to
Angiotensin II acts as a mediator for the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system, it does this by activating Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor and Angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor. The AT1 receptors stimulate the production of aldosterone from the adrenal zona glomerulus. The receptors are found in vasculature,
Inflammation is the main type of innate immunity our body uses against A. schmiddy. Inflammation begins by activating acute-phase proteins, and soon after vasodilation occurs, followed by redness, swelling, pain, and heat. Once vasodilation occurs, histamine and kinins are released and blood vessels permeability is increased, causing white blood cells to report to the infected area. One problem associated with inflammation is that the capsule of A. schmiddy is an important virulence factor, which helps the bacteria to resists phagocytosis. Because the phagocytes cannot destroy the bacteria cells, infection further continues and necrotic tissue forms.
The neurons produce hormones that slide down the axons and end up in the posterior lobe. The posterior lobe is then responsible for storing the hormones made by the neurons of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This portal system consists of blood vessels that carry hormones of the hypothalamus to the anterior lobe. The anterior lobe then responds by making its own hormones.
And the biggest obstacle would be the presence of gallstones. The liver produces hormones and proteins, in addition to cholesterol and affects the way the body grows and heals. It also converts existing amino acids into proteins and creates new amino acids. And it is these proteins that are the building blocks of the hormones,
Captopril (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme [ACE] inhibitor) which will inhibit the RAAS function leading to decreased blood volume and blood pressure. Moreover, due to open fracture on Mr. Jensen’s right leg, there is a possibility of significant blood loss, which can lead to hypovolaemia. Moreover, he is on aspirin (anticoagulant), which will contribute in increased blood loss. Hypovolaemia contributes to decrease in cardiac output, which results in decreased arterial and pulse pressure. Hence, the open fracture will cause hypotension to Mr. Jensen.