My assigned book is the hot zone by Richard Preston, the book demonstrates about a highly contagious and lethal virus that is known as “Ebola virus” that is divided into two types the Ebola Zaire and the Ebola Sudan. The writer also mentioned about other filo viruses such as the Marburg virus and rabies. The hot zone book illustrates the origins of the virus and how it started to disperse from one person to another or from a region to another. And how epidemiologists, scientists and doctors discovered about the origin, structure, the effect on the body, symptoms that it can cause, treatment or cure and the nature of the pathogen. As well as several cases of different patients that had an experience of the disease without knowing the actual
Smallpox is a highly contagious and fatal disease that had a huge impact on the human population. It is thought to have been originated from India or Egypt at least 3,000 years ago. Smallpox is caused by two variations of the variola virus, variola major and variola minor. Variola major is the most common form of smallpox. It enters the body through the lungs and is carried to the internal organs.
A lot of scholars agree that this disease is caused by the proliferation of HIV-1 (McGuire, 2003). As highlighted by McGuire (2003), the replication of this viral strain in brain macrophages leads to a high viral burden within the brain. These viruses cause ADC. This hypothesis has been substantiated by studies that have positively correlated HIV encephalopathy with ADC (John Hopkins University, 2018). Some scholars, however, argue that ADC is caused by a macrophage-initiated cascade of events that leads to the degeneration and dysfunction of the brain (McGuire, 2003).
Another experiment involved malaria injections. The subjects were infected by mosquitoes or by injections of extracts of the mucous glands of mosquitoes. After having contracted malaria, the victims were treated with various drugs to test their relative efficacy. Over one-thousand victims were used in these experiments. Many died and others suffered severe pain and permanent
Another test that is used is the ultrasound (CT) which it is harnmlees, this test uses a high-frequency sound waves that creates images of the fetus. The Amniocentesis test is recommend by doctors for women who have test it for high levels of Alpha Fetoprotein that the ultrasound could not be explained. Prenatal screening can help diagnosed this condition. During the 2nd trimester, pregnant women can have a blood test called
He injected chloroform into the hearts of twins to see if they would die at the same time and way.On dwarfs serological research, and skeletal examination. In effort to study eye color he injected a serum into the eyeballs of children casing extreme pain. They were castrated frozen to death or exposed to other traumas.Another experiment would put them in pressure chambers test with drugs. All these terrors occurred in block 10 of auschwitz 1. Another doctor of the holocaust was Dr herta oberheuser killed children with oil and evipan injection.
“The more one contemplates the hot viruses, the less they look like parasites and the more they begin to look like predators” (Preston 136). There is many different viruses around the planet; each spreading and mutating, jumping from species to species, picking out and taking down their prey. Richard Preston identifies viruses as predators in his novel, The Hot Zone, to show just how lethal they really are; the worst being the hot agent Ebola. The Ebola virus is the most dangerous hot agent, with high fatality rates, mutations, and limited survivors. Ebola is one of many hot agents around the world, however it is the deadliest.
It is highly contagious and can be transferred person to person via close contact such as touching something that is contaminated and proceeding to touch one’s eyes, nose or mouth. It can also be transmitted by respiratory secretions or droplet exposure ("Interim Guidance", 2010). People who are at high risk of getting infected by the H1N1 influenza virus include children under five years old, people 65 and older, people who have chronic illnesses, pregnant women and people who have compromised immune systems (Krause & Poceta, 2017). The symptoms of the H1N1 virus are very similar to symptoms of regular influenza and include nausea and vomiting, fever, diarrhea, coughing, sore throat and
The parasite, T. cruzi, then enters the body. It then multiplies within the cells of the body until the cells burst and release the parasites into the blood stream. Other ways it can be spread: • Blood transfusion from an infected person. • Mother to baby
Much like the Greeks, Ebola can come inside one cell in an organism. The symptoms of Ebola can sneak into an organism’s body without much warning and begin to destroy the insides until symptoms like headaches are reported. Once the cell is inside, it spreads and doesn’t cease destruction until the host is dead. The way in which the Trojan horse and the Ebola virus attack are very similar: brutal, clever and inconspicuous. Preston compares the historical story of legend of the Trojan horse to the Ebola virus, hence allusion is portrayed in his
Goodpasture and Anderson detected multinucleated giant cells in a human skin/ chorioallantoic membrane culture system infected with herpes zoster lesion fluid in 1944 (107), and infectious VZV was isolated in tissue culture by Weller and Stoddard in 1953 (258). Knowledge about the molecular virology of VZV and mecha- nisms of pathogenicity has grown during the past two decades. The complete VZV genome has been sequenced, the infectiv- ity of intact VZV DNA has been demonstrated (39, 53), and, most recently, infectious virus has been produced from cos- mids spanning the genome (39). Antiviral agents that modify the severity of varicella and herpes zoster have been devel- oped, and a live attenuated varicella vaccine that protects against primary VZV infection is now licensed for clinical use (3, 245, 260,
Hershey-Chase: Scientists Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase did an experiment in 1952. this experiment was named the “Hershey-Chase Experiment”. During this time period most people did know DNA in a protein (which is called a capsid) was a virus. They also knew that viruses could replicate by taking over a host cell through its metabolism function. Through this they would create more viruses. Most people believe that all of the viruses that enter our body make us ill.
1999): To investigate the high proportion of Harbour porpoises dying from infectious disease, chemical sampling was undertaken in the liver/blubber tissue of the strandings to research the effects of PCBs earlier mentioned as well as heavy metals like Mercury (Hb). The amounts of these chemicals were examined in those individuals killed by infectious disease and those that were healthy and died from physical trauma. They will then be compared to find if those who died from infectious disease had increased concentrations of heavy metals or PCBs (Bennett et al. 2001; Jepson et al.
Civilians later on got the vaccine in 1945. Today, the developers of the flu shots know that there are different types of flu, and to get the vaccine, doctors have to make an educated guess and create a vaccine that they think will work for the year. There are one hundred forty two influenza centers in the world and they collect data on the flu, monitor strains and then relay their data to one of the five world health organizations. There are also different types of vaccines for the different hemispheres. The flu shot is the only vaccine that is continually being updating because influenza is a rare type of virus that is constantly
When the VZV virus is reactivated and it manifests itself upon your face usually affects the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. When this happens in about 10%-25% of cases it’s called herpes zoster ophthalmicus. When it breaks out upon your face it’s usually along the forehead, upper eyelid and around the orbit of the eye. When this occurs it can bring along conjunctivitis(eye infection), keratitis(inflamed cornea), uveitis(inflammation of the uvea, the vascular tunic of the eye, comprising the iris, choroid coat, and ciliary body), and optic nerve palsies(eye tremors). It can also cause chronic ocular inflammation, a loss of vision resulting in blindness in one eye and of course debilitating pain.