Anemia is mainly causes by iron deficiency. If not treated it leads on to deficiencies of thyroid hormones, folate, vitamin B12 and other important hormones in the body. Other causes may include chronic diseases like megaloblastic anemia. On the other hand when the values are above normal, it maybe be as a consequence of dehydration in which the value should be raised. • Neutropenia White blood cells include neutrophils, neutrophils function and immune system protector that combat against diseases and infections.
An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily. To function efficiently, amylase requires certain conditions. The effect of different sodium chloride concentrations in this on the rate of reaction of amylase will be investigated in this experiment along with the use of starch and iodine.
There are enzymes located on the intestinal brush border known as ferrireductases which reduce ferric iron to the more soluble ferrous state. Once reduced, the ferrous iron is then transported across the mucosal cells by the transporter protein divalent metal cation transporter 1
In patients suffering from Alzheimer’s, alterations in expression of genes related to apoptosis (such as Bcl-2 and caspases) were seen along with increased DNA damage. Amyloid-β protein is seen to aggregate in neurons of Alzheimer’s patients, which is a direct inducer of apoptosis. The over expressed genes and additional DNA damage act as triggers of apoptosis which in turn lead to manifestation of the disease
Copper has a role in synthesis and release of proteins and enzymes involved in cellular energy, nerve regulation, blood clotting and oxygen transport. Copper stimulates immune system, repairing injured tissues and in healing. Copper helps to neutralize free radicals which cause damage to cells. The human body has complex homeostatic mechanisms by which a constant supply of copper is maintained, while eliminating the excess copper absorbed from food. The Absorption of copper depends on the copper content, form of the copper and
Diabetes is a disease that 29.1 million people have to live with; so what is it? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when a person’s pancreas stops producing insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose. Insulin is responsible for delivering the glucose from the bloodstream into muscles, fat, liver, and most cells to produce fuel for the body. Type one Diabetes develops when the cells that create insulin, the pancreatic beta cells, are destroyed by the body’s immune system.
In a 217 total volume of 1.5 mL, the reaction mixture contained 1 mL of the eluate, 400 mL of 218 12.5 mM 3-(dimethylamino) benzoic acid in 0.375 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 80 mL 219 of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazoline hydrazone and 20 mL of peroxidase (0.25 unit). The 220 reaction was started by the addition of peroxidase and the increase in absorbance was
The ABO system consists of four blood groups; A, B, AB and O. Individuals can be divided into these by the ABO blood group system; this is according to the different type of antigen that is present on the surfaces of their erythrocytes. (Ahmed, 2007) The antigens that determine ABO blood groups are oligosaccharide constituents of cell surface glycolipids and glycoprotein (Ahmed, 2007). The H antigen, which is located on chromosome 19, can be attached to type I or type II precursor chains. The H gene encodes an enzyme, L- fucosyl tranferase that adds L-fucose to the terminal galactose to form the H antigen (Ahmed, 2007).
Degradation of fibrin is performed by serine protease plasmin, which is present in blood as a proenzyme, plasminogen, and needs to be activated by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase. Disturbance in haemostasis with abnormal bleeding may be caused by thromocytopenia, platelet function disorder, or defects in blood coagulation. Vascular disorders might also cause a bleeding. To get an accurate diagnosis, which is crucial for successful treatment, the haemostatic function has to be examined. The information about the haemostatic function can by gained using a number of laboratory tests to assess platelet and coagulation
• Another form of modified rice was generated to help combat iron deficiency, which impacts close to 30 percent of the world population. This GM crop was engineered by introducing into the rice genome a ferritin gene from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, that produces a protein capable of binding iron, as well as a gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus that produces an enzyme capable of digesting compounds that increase iron bioavailability via digestion of phytate (an inhibitor of iron absorption). The iron-fortified GM rice was engineered to overexpress an existing rice gene that produces a cysteine-rich metallothioneinlike (metal-binding) protein that enhances iron absorption. A variety of other crops modified to endure the weather
Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disease that affects the lungs and the digestive system. Because this disease limits breathing ability, it is a life-threatening disease. In the United States alone, 30,000 people have cystic fibrosis and 1,000 new cases of CF are diagnosed every year. Over half the of the people with CF are over the age of 18. (About Cystic Fibrosis) Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a mutated gene that changes the protein that controls the salt in and out of the cell.
Beta-3 receptors are located in the fat cells. When taking beta blockers they block B1 and B2 receptors therefore the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine. By blocking these neurotransmitter effects, beta blockers reduce heart rate, decrease blood pressure, and help blood vessels open up to improve blood flow. (Ogbru & Mark, 2015) This class of medications are important because they the most commonly used medications for cardiovascular diseases. Some of the common diseases that beta blockers treat are angina, heart failure, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial
The mechanism of action is as follows: Initially, given that it is a pro drug, it should be activated by the mycobacterium catalase peroxidase enzyme, which is regulated by the kat G gene. Then it enters tuberculosis bacilli by active diffusion. After activation by kat G, isoniazid converted to a wide range of radicals or reactive species and isotonic acids which can include both inactive oxygen species and radical species organic radicals. These radicals and species role is to attack multiple targets include: mycolic acid Synthesis, damage to DNA, lipid peroxidation and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism in the cell. It is also responsible for the bactericidal activity of isoniazid.
The Impact of Malonate on SDH Activity Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the reagent malonate will inhibit, or decrease SDH activity. Justification: Succinic dehydrogenase is an enzyme that is bound to the inner membrane of the mitochondria and takes part in the Krebs Cycle as well as the Electron Transport Chain. Most importantly, SDH is a major component in the Krebs Cycle, and catalyzes the oxidation of its succinate ions to fumarate ions, changing its chemical composition from C4H4O4 to C4H2O4, by removing hydrogen ions. ("5. Enzyme Inhibitors,” 2013).
The link between bacteria and ulcers was then established. After a great deal of research, it was revealed that in individuals that were infected with Helicobacter Pylori, antibodies were found in the bloodstream. Helicobacter Pylori are able to attach to cells as they go through the mucous layer of the stomach. When the bacterium enters the stomach, an enzyme called urease converts the stomach cells chemical urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The enzyme urease tends to trigger inflammation.