Various drugs like Neostigmine, Opioids, Hyaluronidase, and Clonidine etc.1-4 have been added to local anaesthetics in order to modify the block in terms of quick onset, good quality, prolonged duration and post-operative analgesia. But these are not without adverse systemic effects or of doubtful efficacy. Midazolam, a water-soluble benzodiazepine is known to produce antinociception and to enhance the effect of local anaesthetic when given epidurally or intrathecally. Midazolam produces this effect by its action on Gamma Amino Butyric Acid-A (GABA-A) receptors. GABA receptors have also been found in peripheral nerves.
They also inhibit lipid peroxidation in the liver. In combination with silymarin, a well-known hepatoprotectant and clove oil, garlic extract shows hepatoprotective activity in N-nitrosodiethylamine with CCl4 and lead-induced hepatotoxicity, respectively (Ajai et al., 2009). Overall,
Under a range of lower oxygen concentration, it acts as an antioxidant inhibiting ROS. However, lutein, under higher oxygen pressure or at its high concentration, may start an auto-oxidation process, its radical could react with oxygen to produce a carotenoid peroxyl radical and induce lipid peroxides. (Kim, Seo & Kim, 2011) More oxidative products are predicted to be formed at a high concentration of lutein when ROS is present. (Young & Lowe, 2001) Rahu et al. (2005) investigated the effect of high and low dose of lutein on colon carcinogenesis in rats.
It is used in asthma therapy and administered orally and undergoes hepatic metabolism. Its use in asthma has declined considerably, with the efficacy of the leukotriene receptor antagonists. 184.108.40.206 Cysteinyl LT receptor inhibitors C-LTs promote eosinophil influx, bronchospasm and mucus hypersecretion, all are considered hallmarks of asthma. C-LT receptor inhibitors antagonize or inhibit leukotrienes predominantly LTD4. These agents inhibit phospholipases, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and IL-1 synthesis.
Here we summarized past and current developments concerning betulin, betulinic acid and their more active derivatives, such as Bevirimat [3-O-(3′, 3′-dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid (=DSB)], LH15, LH55, macrocyclic derivative particularly focusing on their pharmaceutical
Increasing incidences of antibiotic resistance among pathogens has created a demand to explore alternative treatment approaches. One such approach involves evaluating plant derived compounds for their activity against drug resistant pathogens. This study aims at examining the effect of green tea leaf extracts (GTE) on Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) producing gram negative uropathogens. An ethanolic extract of GTE was prepared using soxhlet apparatus and its effect was studied on seven gram negative MBL producing uropathogens with respect to its Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). In addition, the synergistic activity of ampicillin (a β-lactam drug) with GTE was carried out by agar dilution method to analyze the reduction in MBC of ampicillin in the presence of sub-lethal concentrations of GTE.
(2011), betulinic acid does possess an anti-angiogenic activity but it would still depend on the amount of dose and also the nanoemulsion formulation maintained the effect. Moreover, betulinic acid inhibits in vitro enzymatic activity of aminopeptidase, which is known to play an important role in angiogenesis (Kwon et., al,
Maximum zone of inhibition was obtained for E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than Streptococcus pheumonia. Satyanarayana et al  were studied antibacterial activity of different phytochemical extracts from the leaves of T. procumbens Linn against Staphyclococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabills and Vibrio cholerae. Antibacterial activity of hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extract obtained from the aeirial parts of T. procumbens was tested against both gram positive (Staphylococeus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and gram negative (Enterobacter aerogenes)using agar well diffusion method, indicated the presence of more active compound in methanol than in hexane extract  Bobbarala et al  studied antifungal activity of whole plant extract against phytopathogenic fungi, Aspergillus niger. The leaf extract of T. procumbens was tested against Fusarium oxysporium f sp.udum. Bultar Var Crotolariae (Kulkarni) pidwick causing seeding blight of Pigeon pea .
In some cases, it may cause rhabdomyolysis, acute tubular necrosis supervene, vomiting gastritis, hypertension, and vertigo (Macphec et al., 1975; Young H. and Yu J., 1997). Some azo dyes are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Malachite green causes serious public health hazards and environmental problem. So far through various experimental observations it is revealed that malachite green is a multiorgan toxin; it decreases food intake, growth, fertility
They offer a great potential to reduce the side effect of drug and increase the therapeutic effectiveness as topical drug delivery system. Ketoconazole is an imidazole derivative with broad spectrum antifungal activity. Ketoconazole interacts with 14 α-dimethylase, a microsomal cytssochrome P-450 dependent enzyme system, thus impair the biosynthesis of ergosterol for the cytoplasmic membrane and leads to the accumulation of 14 α-methyl sterols. It is commonly available as an over the counter (OTC) substance in various dosage forms i.e. cream, shampoo or as combination medicine, following oral administration, Ketoconazole is poorly absorbed and has a very low half-life 2 h. To overcome these inherent drawbacks associated with conventional drug delivery of Ketoconazole an attempt is made to design an alternative drug delivery in form of