Prior to the Latin American countries gaining independence, the Creole elites expressed great displeasure with the crown and readily equated themselves with the American colonists before gaining independence from Britain. With this ideology, many Creole’s became enfranchised with Anglo-European culture and enlightenment, convinced that this culture would solve their perceived problems. The Latin American Creole’s believed in both Charles Darwin and Spencer, to show that the fittest survive through evolution and that those concepts apply to the society they lived in. Spencer reinforced the belief that science, industry and progress were interlinked, and with the evolution of society their nations would bloom. Therefore, if an individual was failing in life, blame
Progressivism is a movement focused on rectifying politics, modernization, and justice for the American people. In the Progressive Era, the citizens had many important economic issues to address, such as exploitation of women and children, the advancement of scientific research, and the consequences of big businesses taking over the work force. On the legislative side, many issues such as corrupt political leaders, Americans being given the freedom the Constitution allows, as well as citizens voices being heard as far as political issues are concerned. The Progressives were motivated by corruption at the hands of the government, inequality for American citizens, and greed by larger companies. The Progressive Era accomplished many advancements such as growth on an economic and city population level, improvement in the industrial production, as well as development of the consumer marketplace.
In fact, once the people gained more knowledge and power, she moved to burn Voltaire’s works. Once she saw the people were finding themselves in a higher position than they last were, because of the influence of the Enlightenment, she felt her power was threatened. The law code exhibits the society Catherine the Great wanted to build and enforce, and it still impacts democratic governments
During the late 1800s, women made it clear that they wanted their equal rights. Women had no power compared to what men had. If women started looking like they had power, it was said that they started to look more masculine. Women began to fight back and attempt to reform the government. In this political cartoon, the artist shows his view of life before and after women were able to vote.
They were, among others; Allen Ginsberg, who wrote Howl (1956); William S. Burroughs, the author of Naked Lunch (1959) and Jack Kerouac, who wrote On the Road (1957), and the one who introduced the phrase "Beat Generation". They started to be known as a "new bohemian hedonist", people who were well-educated and from the middle class. The main aim of this cultural movement was the intention to shake the foundations of American society. To do that, they questioned traditional values. In a growing capitalistic world, they were anti-materialistic and opposed industrial civilization.
Goldenberg (Goldenberg 1979). As was discussed above, many feminist have build their rationale on arguing for the society’s need to move away from religion in order to provide women with tools of emancipation and build gender equal society. One of such tools is secularism as a concept of liberation of the state’s political and social decisions from religious influence, or simply the separation of Church and State. The secular arguments in feminism were developing slowly in the religious era and became louder and prominent only by the end of the 18th century. French feminist and revolutionary Olympre De Gouge famous for her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), even if often speaking about God, was a strong campaigner against religious marriage which she deemed "love and trust's grave”.
Under the communist regime , in 1956 despite the protests of the Poland’s strong Catholic Church , a liberal abortion law was adopted. Main arguments for the defenders of such a law were that it would reduce the high maternal mortality rates due to unsafe abortions. The law decriminalized abortion for social reasons but did not actually recognize a woman’s right to abortion. Women who wished to obtain an abortion had to consult with two doctors, which constituted a significant barrier to the service (a similar bill was proposed in Romania by the Liberal Democrats Party deputies Marius Dugulescu and Sulfina Barbu in 2012 (BP58/13.03.2012) through which it would have established mandatory pre-abortion consultations in specialized pregnancy crisis centres and a period of reflection of five days. ).
In her seminal book Feminism Without Women: Culture and Criticism in a Postfeminist Age, Tania Modleski explains that many feminist critics do not perceive postfeminism as a cultural and political movement that steps into the shoes of feminism but rather as a retrograde action that jeopardizes the feminist project: “proclaiming or assuming the advent of postfeminism, are actually engaged in negating the critiques and undermining the goals of feminism-in effect delivering us back to a prefeminist world” (qtd. in Gamble 37).In her book Backlash: the Undeclared War against American Women, Susan Flaudi further explains the idea that the 1980s designate a depressing period in the history of feminism that starts witnessing a sharp retreat from many goals of the movement. While defining postfeminism as an anti-feminist movement which entails a “wholesale rejection of feminist ideals, an attempt to demonize women’s liberation and to return women to the subordinate roles of a bygone era,” Faludi launches a fierce reaction against the women’s movement as it turns back the hard-won and laborious accomplishments that the feminist activity has achieved for women and re-inscribes conventional models of domesticity, femininity and motherhood (qtd. in Bonnie J. Dow 87). Faludi’s definition explains that postfeminist
Although industrialization brought better income to the society, the people were dissatisfied with the government as it was moribund. The leader, Napoleon III, took a liberal stance, amnestying political exiles and reducing restrains on the press. The imperial dictatorship has been transformed into a constitutional monarchy. While some sectors of the society were in concert with Napoleon III’s reformist ideal; some were of equal concern. Another important idea in the Victorian era is the slow recognition of sexual repression and the start of liberation that opened up better opportunity for women to express themselves.
“Man, are you capable of being fair? A woman is asking: at least you will allow her that right. Tell me? What gave you the sovereign right to oppress my sex?” (De Gouges) Against common misbelieves, the origins of feminism did not begin with the suffragette movement in the 1900s, but two years after the French Revolution began. Olympe de Gouges wrote her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen after the French Constitution, which was to address equal rights, completely obliterated women.
Rebecca, I agree with your view on President Lincoln 's actions being revolutionary for the time. While Lincoln faced opposition to some of his beliefs a majority of his actions influenced the United States in the long term. I also agree that the Emancipation Proclamation was the greatest measure of his presidency. The Emancipation Proclamation was a decree that freed slaves in areas of rebellion if they were to fight in the war, which did not please everyone (Faragher,396). I really enjoyed your discussion over Lincoln 's cabinet it played a major role in the struggles of Lincoln 's presidency.
Early scholarship of the civil rights movement would portray male participants as orchestrators of collective action. As Rosa Parks effectually represented the virtue of Black women, historians would present similar figures to represent Black males in order the image of Black men as leaders and producers of social change (Estes, 2005). However, the events that propelled the notoriety of the social movements during the Jim Crow era involved numerous women who both led and organized events. Charles Payne in I’ve Got the Light of Freedom, emphasizes that the development of male and female leadership was based on an organizing tradition involving community members (Payne, 2007). The civil rights movement represented an era of conflict for Black men as some sought to distinguish themselves as protectors and defy the “demonization of Black masculinity” (Estes, 2005, p.66).
Yes, the revolutionary war was revolutionary. Document 2 states that people will rule the government, this was a dramatic change because in Great Britain, their mother country, the royalty placed laws on non-royals. It also says that the colonists want equal rights. Abigail Adams tried to communicate to her husband that women’s rights are important too (document #7). Many people did not have the courage to go up to someone and discuss women’s rights, and if they did the people usually turned down the idea.
According to Arthur M. Schlesinger, “Another objective [of the American Communists] is what communists call “mass organizations”- that is groups of liberal organized for some benevolent purpose, and because of innocence, laziness, and stupidity of most membership.” Schlesinger had feared that people were being influenced by communists and because they weren’t fighting it, it was easier to recruit members. Due to their laziness, innocence, and stupidity, the people were giving the communists a chance to become even more subversive and take over. In addition, Joseph McCarthy, a senator from Wisconsin, assured the people in his speech at Wheeling, West Virginia that,“Today we are engaged in a final, all-out battle between communistic atheism and Christianity.” His use of the word “battle” sends a wave of fear and seriousness. McCarthy goes on to share some statistics and explains, “Six years ago.. There was within the Soviet orbit 180 million people...Today, only six years later, there are 800 million people under the absolute domination of Soviet Russia-an increase of over 400 percent.” This goes to show that like Schlesinger said, it has become easier to fall under the influence of the Soviets.