In order to determine what constitutes a good theory, it is important to first understand what a theory is. A theory is described as “a coherent description, explanation and representation of observed or experienced phenomena” (Gioia & Pitre 1990, in Lynham 2000, p. 162). This assignment aims to critically assess and evaluate the Theory of Planned Behaviour against the properties of a good theory and ultimately conclude whether or not the Theory of Planned behaviour can be deemed a good theory. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1985) focuses on the way in which attitudes and beliefs interact to create behavioural intentions and action. The theory is a built on the Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1971) and an extension of
Discuss the role of reason according to Kant. Show how reason is tied to autonomy and to Kant requirement that we respect others. Consider any weaknesses in Kant 's emphasis on reason in his moral theory. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who was widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that fundamental concepts structure human experience, and that reason is the source of morality.
In the book, Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant argues that the general concept of morality is divided into two rules of reason. The first rule of reason for morality is the hypothetical imperative. These imperatives include characteristics such as customs, fashion, happiness, prudence, taste, art, i.e. As Kant reasons in his work, “The hypothetical imperative that represents practical necessity of the action as a means to furthering happiness is assertotic. One may expound it as necessary not merely to an uncertain, merely possible aim, but to an aim, that one can presuppose safely and a priori with every human being, because it belongs to his essence.
The Toulmin method is an effective tool that helps determine the efficacy of an argument by using this method the author’s argumentative strategies are evaluated to determine their strength. This essay will use the Toulmin method in order to assess the strength of James E. McWilliams’ argument. The Toulmin method will break down the author’s argument into components—the claim, evidence, warrant, qualifiers, and rebuttal. Through using the Toulmin method, Williams’ argument and the components of his argument will be dissected and individually analyzed to determine each component’s effectiveness and how it contributes to the overall power and credibility of Williams’ argument. The Locavore Myth Analysis Developing and expressing an argument effectively takes skill.
Furthermore, Cloninger (2008) also tells that ego is working as the major conscious centre to resolve the issues arise from both the impulsive urge of id and the moral restriction from the superego. In a simple way, ego is the information centre of the mind that carries out duties to maintain a harmonious balance between id and superego: first to receive knowledge from internal and external environments, second is to reserve the information either in consciously or unconsciously way and third is to process the information and carry out the decision making to decide a response or a reaction based on the need of id and superego (Goldwater,
Ideas of doubt and skepticism are inherent his philosophy. One of the central places in his work occupied by causality problem. Even though there are many nuances to discuss concerning his personality-I am going to stress on: ‘’Why he is considered empiricist? How his human understanding conceived from his position?’’ and ‘’What are the challenges with this account?’’
Second, this paper will examine Hayward 's discussion of RCT, SCP, and cultural criminology. Third, I will explore Farrell 's critique of Hayward 's article and consider his arguments made in response to Hayward 's conclusions. Fourth, this paper will engage in its own critique of both Hayward 's and Farrell 's work and conclude with which article makes the most compelling argument. Tenets of Rational Choice Theory and Situational Crime Prevention Rational choice theory originated in the Classical School of thinking as it is based on the ideas of utilitarianism, which states that individuals make decisions that provide the greatest pleasure, as well as the ideas of free will and rational thought (Farrell and Hodgkinson, 2015). According to Farrell and
ntroduction : My paper will focuses on the arguments of Philip pettie, about his point of view of the Social theory use as the tools for the policy making by the government and society. Is it a good tools let us understand about more political values such as liberty and democracy? And understand the old and new problems with the idea of Liberty or democracy? For this paper, I will show the point of view by Phillip Pettit(2012)from his” Journal on Labour Politics: ”The Republic , old and new” and the book of Gaertner wolf (2006): “London School of Economics Perspectives in Economic Analysis: Primer in Social Choice theory.” as a reference to focus on his arguments and also what problem he addressed for. For the first part, I would like to introduce
Aristotle Aristotle (384-322 BC) believed knowledge was gained through the environment (Noel, 1993). Aristotle 's reality, founded in concrete knowledge gathering and experience, which is incorrelation with a rationalistic pedagogical paradigm Cantu and Warren, 2003). This is in contrast to Plato 's concept of truth and Piaget 's concept of schemata which are part of a constructivist pedagogical paradigm (Cantu and Warren, 2003). He saw knowledge to be associative, as one idea triggers the memory of another. Aristotle saw practical reasoning as an important aspect of teaching as a moral activity (Noel, 1993).
However, organizational politics means the influence processes enacted to manage the multiple competing interests existing in the organization. Pfeffer (1981) defined organizational politics as: “activities taken within organization to acquire, develop and use power and other resources to obtain ones preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty or dis-sensus about choices”. Kurchner Hawkins and Miller (2006) considered organizational politics as “an exercise of power and influence that primarily occurs outside formal organizational processes and procedures.” Political behavior consists of “influence tactics designed to further self and/or organizational interests, and its basic aim is to reconcile and effectively manage such potentially competing interests” (Kurchner-Hawkins &Millers, 2006). Drory and Romm (1990) argued that power is an organizational resource which increases as a result of controlling the resource of organization and politics is related to such power