The scientific revolution is important because it brings to light two fundamental ideas “observation and evidence”, this forced man to compare the physical traits of human forms, this brought about the differentiation between blacks and whites. According to West philosophy in collaboration with science helped bring theory to reality. Philosophers Bacon and Descartes believed that philosophy brought a new standard of knowledge and that observation and evidence were at the center of the scientific method (West pg. 52). The classical revival of the Greco ideas of beauty that was used to measure what is considered beauty.
Many of his thoughts and principles were studied and adopted by the founders of the United States and are evident in documents, just like the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Locke emphasized the freedom of humans, the equality of all before God, regulation and authorities through consent of the governed, and he justified the overthrow of presidency when it fails the people. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was another prominent thinker from the Enlightenment era. Rousseau differed with Locke about the position of the individual in relation to the country, with Rousseau emphasizing the importance of the ruled being worried in
John Stuart Mill (1801-1856) was the British philosopher, political theorist and economist whose works have influenced the social and political context significantly. He has been one of the prominent thinkers on liberal philosophy and is still regarded as a distinguished identity within the liberal school of thought. His ideas have given a new dimension to the already established by his predecessors like Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism. His prominent works include, On Liberty, Representative Government, Principles of Political Economy, A System of Logic, Utilitarianism, Three essays on Religion, The Subjection of Women and his Autobiography. Apart from these significant works, many of his writings, letters and newspaper articles also form
The great English philosopher and political theorist John Locke laid much of the foundation of the Enlightenment period as well as having a major role to the synthesis of the idea of a liberal and limited government. He is regarded by many as the father of, what is now known as, British Empiricism. He’s also had great influence in fields such as theology with his theories of religious tolerance as well as educational theories. He published extensive essays such as An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, in which he discusses the way humans acquire knowledge by applying an empiricist theory; suggesting that we acquire ideas by directly interacting with our environment (Connolly, n.d.). The Two Treaties of Government, one of his most famous political works, introduces the idea that the power of government is with the people and he uses arguments such as natural rights and social contract to support his claim.
Europeans were continuing to grow alliances and colonize Africa. In the excerpt, Pearson is considered to be addressing and informing those wanting to learn about social darwinism, as well as his college students. He states, “History has shown me one way, and one way only, in which a high state of civilization has been produced, namely, the struggle of race with race, and the survival of the physically and mentally fitter race”. Pearson supported Social Darwinism and wanted to educate the younger generations with similar philosophies. He emphasized that all races were not equal and that the Europeans should hold more power over all other colonies.
Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes isolation of the individual existence in a hostile or absurd environment. William James was a famous American philosopher and psychologist, and a leading thinker of the nineteenth century. James was one of the most influential philosophers of the United States, and has been labeled the ‘Father of American psychology’ (Stanford Encyclopedia). James is best known for his Pragmatism theory, introduced in lectures in 1898 and later collected and published in Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking. He combines Socrates 's workings and Francis Bacon 's concept of truth into a philosophy, which he says applies to all humanity, especially religion.
The eighteenth century Enlightenment proved to be a movement of the intellectuals who dared to prove all the aspects in life scientifically. These individuals were greatly affected by the scientific revolution. They were, in addition, advocating the appliance of the scientific methodology to the understanding of life. Throughout the age of enlightenment, science became popular and there were many philosophers like John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith, Montesquieu, etc who applied the natural laws to the social life. These people and their writings had a huge impact on the French Revolution.
In showing the similarities between the two sciences Durkheim necessarily implies that sociology is as legitimate of a science as biology. In Chapter III, “Rules for the Distinction of the Normal from the Pathological” (144) Durkheim focusses on establishing the differences between what is normal and what is pathological in sociology by discussing how health and sickness are determined within the biological sphere. “Every sociological phenomenon, just as every biological phenomenon, although staying essentially unchanged, can assume a different form for each particular case” (147), therefor making every sociological phenomenon as real and as scientific as every biological phenomenon. This comparison also serves to separate sociology from philosophy, a distinction which Durkheim considers to be the first “characteristic of the sociological method”
However the theory that had the most impact came from Charles Darwin 's theory on “natural selection” and the survival of the fittest”. He taught that if evolution had changed other species why hadn’t it done the same to the human race. This helped justified the expansion of the Great British race across the world. The other races being exterminated on the
Max Weber was a German sociologist who was born in 1864. Many of Weber 's work remains essential to sociology today. He had a particular interest in the birth of strong bureaucracy, resulting in more efficient capitalism. He highlights his ideas through his book 'Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, and the dangers it imposed on charismatic leaders and the process of disenchantment. This assignment will discuss Weber 's work on the Protestant ethic, the origins of where Weber 's warning about bureaucracy emerged from.
He later continued his research and wrote the book The Descent of Man. Darwin is also commonly credited with writing the ideas of natural selection, variation/adaptation, and evolution. His studies are the foundation of modern evolutionary studies. Darwin 's studies were also used to justify some major wars, saying that natural selection was taking place in humans and the weak will die and only the strongest will survive. Otto von Bismarck was a 19th century, Prussian, politician.