Primary infection occurs in epithelial cells leading to a skin rash and fever as a phenotype. When virions spread to adjacent sensory neurons, a lifelong infection is established (Owen, Crump, & Graham, 2015). Both primary and secondary diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality but thanks to advances in diagnostic and the production of vaccines, it is possible to decrease their burden (Gershon, 2013). 1.1 Varicella: Varicella (chickenpox), the primary infection of VZV, is characterized by cutaneous eruption typically seen in children. In adults, this primary infection is more severe and in immunocompromised patients, it can be followed by complications such as, high fever, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis (Gershon et al., 2013).
Herpes can appear in various parts of the body, most commonly on the genitals or mouth. There are two types of the herpes simplex virus. HSV-1, also known as oral herpes, can cause cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth and on the face. HSV-2 is generally responsible for genital herpes outbreaks. What is HSV-1 and HSV-2?
PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HEPATITIS B IN THE UNITED STATES. Infected mothers with (HBsAG) Hepatitis B surface antigen, an indicator of high levels of virus is blood have transmitted infection to their new born babies. Also Injected drug use, needle sticks, tattooing have passed on disease to uninfected people (P.& J. Engelkirk p.316). Other types of health care associated transmission also known as nosocomial outbreaks involving patient-to-patient transmission have occurred in association with a variety of transmission vehicles including multi dose vials, re-usable finger stick devices and other contaminated medical equipment. (CDC,
Zika is a virus that a person can catch if bitten by an infected mosquito. First seen in Africa about 70 years ago, the virus recently has spread throughout the world, particularly in tropical areas where certain types of mosquitoes live. The main problem with Zika is its effect on unborn babies. In pregnant women, the virus can cause miscarriage, stillborn babies, or babies with birth defects. One serious birth defect caused by Zika is microcephaly.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the mouth mostly affects the oral region of the body and gives rise to sore and pain in the mouth with fluid discharge in some occasion. Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in the Mouth The different types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
1. Describe the disease process with presenting signs and symptoms. Cervical cancer develops when abnormal cells on the cervix start growing out of control. The location of the cervix is in the lower portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical cancer is found through a Pap smeat test and can be effectively treated if found in it’s early stages.
There’s evidence that this virus existed all the way back to Egyptian times when a mummified child showed a disfigured and shortened lower limb. This virus that attacks the nerves of the brain and spinal cord and may result in paralysis of muscles, usually asymmetrically, with lower limb involvement. Polio is spread through person-to-person contact, typically fecal-oral transmission. When a child is infected with wild poliovirus, the virus enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine. It is then shed into the environment through the feces where it can spread rapidly through a community, especially in situations where poor hygiene and sanitation are lacking.
In the stages of endometriosis you can experience different types of effects and stages. The stages are referred to as Stage I to Stage IV. The reproductive system can be compromised and cause infertility. Anatomically the disruption of pelvic structures, multiple production and activation of peritoneal macrophages cause the inflammation of the lower abdominal cavity. It may bring about an ectopic pregnancy since the fallopian tube may be infected and the egg may stick to one of the cyst.
Based on Trussell 2009, protective barriers are physical, mechanical, or chemical processes that help prevent the spread of infectious microorganisms from client to client, clinic staff to client, and client to staff. Also added that infection prevention often relies on placing such barriers between the microorganism and the individual. Examples of protective barriers include: handwashing, wearing gloves, using antiseptic solutions, and processing instruments and other items as described
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
This virus is very contagious, that is why a majority of the population is infected by the HSV-1 before getting adults. This infection develops in stages. The first stage is the primary infection stage in which the virus enters inside tha body and starts reproducing and causes blisters. The second stage is the stage od latency in which the virus moves from the skin to the nerve tissues in the spines, also known as dorsal root ganglion. Here, it reproduces again and becomes inactiv, until stimulated again by certain body conditions.
It is a disease that is a severe loss of the body 's cellular immunity,greatly lowering the resistance to infection and malignancy. HIV is also called the human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS as well is known as, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, both interfere with the body 's ability to fight infections. Spreaded by sexual
These enterovirus are present in many things such as mucus, feces and saliva and are transmitted through direct contact with someone or something that is infected. The virus then enters the mouth and travels to the brain so that it can multiply there. Encephalitis can also caused by the same infections, but more than half of the cases remain undiagnosed. Most cases of encephalitis are caused by enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, West Nile virus or rabies. Herpes simplex encephalitis can affect anyone at any age but is usually seen with people under the age of twenty or people over the age of forty.
Mononucleosis is often called the kissing disease because it is spread through the saliva of an infected person. Most people catch the infection by kissing someone who has it. About Epstein-Barr Virus states that, "Epstein-Barr (EBV), also known as the human herpesvirus 4, is a member of the herpes virus family. It is one of the most common human viruses" (About Epstein-Barr Virus, 2016). Human heroes virus type four is the cause of the Epstein-Barr virus.
According to Ron Dagan, acute otitis media (middle ear infection) are most common in kids 3 months old to 3 years old. (Dagan p. 1). In Clinical Bacteriology of Recurrent Otitis Media with Effusion, it states, “antibiotic resistance has increased due to indiscriminate overuse and misuse of antibiotics.” The overuse of an antibiotic and/or using the wrong antibiotic to treat the sickness has made bacteria more resistant to the antibiotics. Later on in the passage, Dagan adds, “we collected nine hundred middle ear fluid samples for six hundred fifty four pediatric patients who underwent ventilation tube insertion due to OME…” “Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that the two groups differed in sensitivity to penicillin and erythromycin, but no other antibiotics.” (Article abstract).Out of the nine hundred samples they took, the group showed the bacteria was defeated by the antibiotic penicillin and the antibiotic erythromycin but the other antibiotics didn’t touch the bacteria. The experiment showed people only two antibiotics were fighting off the bacteria.