With social media and other media outlets taking over our contemporary world today, it is important to understand why and how people are seeking these media outlets and how they consume them to satisfy their own specific needs, whether it is knowledge, relaxation, social interactions/companionship, diversion, or escape. On the mass media scale, this is known as the uses and gratification theory. This paper is going to be discussing the early formation of the theory and its historical context, how it has helped us understand media today, its role in the modern world, and its main criticism’s. Uses and gratifications theory is an approach to understanding why and how individuals dynamically seek out particular media to satiate specific
Cartesian Dualism With the “new” Method of Doubt, Descartes arrived at the conclusion, that he can doubt everything except the existence of his own mind. And it is important to understand that he can doubt his physical body but not his mind, therefore he argues that there is a significant difference between Mind and Body. Modern science has shown how the brain is, simplified stated, a machine which causes thinking. For Descartes this was not his understanding of the brain. He rather thought that the brain can be understood as the connecting organ between the physical body and the immaterial mind.
According to Psychologist Dr. Jim Taylor, the world of social media today is transforming self discovery from a process of knowing thyself to rather showing thyself. (Taylor: online). Your online persona, or rather social media profile, can in many ways be viewed as a form of self-presentation. Self-presentation, which is “the conscious or unconscious process by which people try to influence the perception of their image”, is not only natural, but also takes place in the offline world through social interactions (Junco : 111). We have a perceived images of ourselves and we want to communicate to the outside world and ensure that other people see us as we view ourselves.
In this paper I wrote about the possible effects of social media on both, individuals and the society as a whole. The first thing I do is illustrate today’s situation of social media with some research findings with specific aspects of focus. Technology are the possible consequence for our social behavior, there are many different interpretations related to social media. The way that people think is also part of the technology and the influence of social media. Social networks are social structures that serve as means of communication, to facilitate the dissemination of messages in information channels, shortening distances and times of sending messages, all this facilitating kinship relations, personal relationships, organizational relationships,
Theoretical Framework In addition to proper relationship building, organizations are entitled therefore to disseminate good quality content. Furthermore, when evaluating and analysing content on social media, it is important to take into consideration the richness they have. Daft and Lengel (1986) presented the Media Richness Theory, which talks about the degree of richness of information brought out in media. Moreover, they propose that the “richness” of a medium depends on its variedness in terms of 1) language variety 2) multiplicity of cues and 3) personalization of the message and 4) immediate feedback (p. 560). During the development stage of this theory, it solely focused on face-to-face communication and e-mail.
It helps to explain the motivations behind the media use and habits of media use or the actual needs satisfaction by the media are called media gratifications. Contemporary U&G is grounded in the following five assumptions: (Papacharissi & Mendelson, 2007) (a) “Communication behaviour, including media selection and use, is goal directed, purposive, and motivated”, (b) “People take the initiative in selecting and using communication vehicles to satisfy felt needs or desires”’ (c) “A host of social and psychological factors mediate people’s communication behaviour”; (d) Media compete with other forms of communication for selection, attention, and use to gratify our needs or want” (e) “People are typically more influential than the media in the relationship, but not always. (Rubin, 1994). 18 Applied to context of this research paper, U&G supports the understanding of viewer motives and predisposition, while placing Reality Television on the larger spectrum of communication channels that are more or less available to audience. It permits the study of both Instrumental and Ritualised uses of media, both of which could drive the appeal of Reality
As an essential agent, media is mainly responsible for entertaining and providing information (Virginia, Priyanka and Sunita, 2013: 38; Happer and Philo, 2013: 321). At the same time, many scholars believe that, as a widely used agent, mass media is also one of the major sources to disseminate social norms and ideologies to maintain social stability and create social conformity (Sonderling, 2007: 317). Since mass media is powerful to construct common values and norms, sociologists believe that the gender codes would be constructed and released consciously and subconsciously by various mass media, to shape people’s thoughts and actions, and restrict the unexpected gender performances (Vagdevi and Shantharaju, 2014: 140). Therefore, several theories of media studies were proposed to show the relation of media and individual’s thought: 1. The ‘Hypodermic Needle Model’ (also known as ‘Magic Bullet Theory’) is proposed in early stage of media studies which radio and television were the two major sources for people to receive information.
Gerbner (1998:198) defined cultivation as “the independent contributions media viewing makes to an individual’s conceptions of social reality.” This theory explains how an individual’s perception of social reality can be changed if they perceive the real world according to what they viewed in the media, or especially on television (Holstrom, 2004:197). Morgan and Shanahan (2010: 337) described the media as indoctrinating a woman’s opinion of her body image over time through repetitive and frequent viewing. Levine and Smolak (1996:250) stated that the continual repetition of certain values, as well as the exclusion of certain types of people, actions and stories powerfully influences and adapt viewer’s conceptions of social reality. Tiggemann
A number of theories are drawn from various disciplines (i.e. media and cultural studies, psychology, anthropology, etc) about the way how media represents reality. Media representation is the main focus of theories around portrayals (Hall 1997) and cultural studies (Grsiprund, 2002), and the central point of representation theory remains the dilemma whether the media simply reflects or actually constructs realities? On both sides, there are notable scholars defending each theory. Kellner (1995) argues that media reproduces social struggles, which in return, has an impact on the production of identities and audience understanding of the world.
Researcher use media dependency theory as it is a mass communication theory that seeks to explain the long term effects of media on the audiences and a society. Dependency theory conceives of dependency as a relationship in which the fulfillment of one party‘s needs and goals is reliant on the resources of another party. The main focus of this theory is the relationship between media and its audiences. The usage of uses and gratification in this research as it is one of the earliest theories that postulate the audience to be active. This theory is developed by Elihu Katz and Jay Blumler and the key elements in this theory are the uses of the media, and the gratifications produced by those uses.