Cognitive science is the more than an interdisciplinary domain. It is a tool to create a connection between lovers of discourse. Humans study minds by studying the behavior of others, in this way we solve difficult problems. Insightful wisdom and higher cognition are correlated and their basis lies not just in psychology or neuroscience, but philosophy as well, which serves as a source of information about the integration of minds, important concepts, theoretical material, conceptual reasoning and insightful integration. John Vervaeke has described cognitive science to be fundamental to explaining the phenomenon of ‘wisdom’.
Birth Order and its Impacts on Personality Development Human psychological development being a complex system is affected by number of potential internal and external stimuli. Starting from the simple prenatal period to environment exposure until 5 years, greatly shape a child’s personality. Out of these the one of the commonly neglected factor is birth order.
The first dimension it uses openness (Big Five, 2017). The next dimension it uses is the conscientiousness. The third one is agreeableness. The fourth is the extraversion. The last dimension it uses is the neuroticism.
The difference between Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s works was that Piaget studied children from 5 to 13 years of age to create overlapping phases, whereas Kohlberg’s stages attempts to account for development in moral judgement up through professional moral philosophers (Rest, 1979). Kohlberg replaced the word “phase” used by Piaget with “ stages” and said that over the course of moral development the individual should go through the six stages in consecutive order, without stage skipping or stage reversal (Colby et al., 1983) . CMD levels and stages (Kohlberg, 1984). CMD level 1 preconventional. Preconventional reasoning is moral reasoning based on a highly egocentric rationale: individuals are concerned with how they will benefit most.
The need-success person is 'achievement motivated ' and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. According to definitions, achievement motivation is a subjective, internal, and psychological drive, enabling individuals to pursue work they perceive to be valuable and eventually achieve their goals. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of
Appraisals are evaluations related to how a situation will affect a person’s well-being and Lazarus states that negative emotions are generated if the appraisal assesses a potential threat.[5 ] Appraisal theory is a theory that people’s personal interpretations of the situation determines their emotional reaction and there are two ways that people cope in stressful situations. One way is the problem-focused coping, where an individual tries to change the situation that is causing them stress. The second method is emotion-focused coping, where an individual tries to cope with the situation by handling their own emotions by escaping, seeking social support, etc. A study that supports this theory is a study conducted by Speisman et al.
When he fails to get his wants, he becomes dissatisfied. So Bekowitz believes that feeling of dissatisfaction produces anger (35). So, it can be described as a product of a social interaction. It is clear that anger must be mastered by reasons. Literature always is a mirror of the society, especially drama as it is close to people and its aim is to reflect the society.
Cognitive dissonance is experienced by every human being goes through at some point of their lives, through rationalizing when there is an uncomfortable feeling for doing something that goes against their beliefs. According to this theory, individuals are able to recognize when they are acting in ways that are opposite from their beliefs. He argued that it would be hard for an individual to ignore the behaviors that violates ones principles, which will cause feelings of discomfort. Cognitive dissonance, when there are a differences and similarities between beliefs and behaviors, something must change in order to eliminate or reduce the dissonance. Feinster argued that there are three ways to help reduce or dissolve cognitive dissonance:
The concept of sensitivity to rejection was pioneered by Mehrabian (1970). He studied the concept both empirically and conceptually to classify rejection sensitivity from affiliative need (Mehrabian, 1976). Rejection sensitivity (RS) is defined by Zimmer-Gembeck and Nesdale (2012) as “a tendency to expect, perceive, and over react to rejection”. This concept was conceptualized as a defensive motivational system that integrates the perceptual and social information processing of an individual (Pietrzck, Downey, & Ayduk, 2005).