Skinner and it is not a theory of motivation (Bagraim, et al., 2012, p. 98). It states that people mostly behave in ways that lead to positive results and do not participate in behaviours that do not lead to positive results (Bagraim, et al., 2012, pp. 98-100). This theory focuses on a person’s actions rather than their inner self. There are four different ways that managers in the workplace can control behaviour of employees (Bagraim, et al., 2012, p. 99): 1.3.1 Positive reinforcement When a good dead has been done, the employee will be commended for his behaviour.
In fact, research has shown that the association between salary and job satisfaction is very weak. These results have important implications for employers – if you want an engaged workforce, money is clearly not the answer. Furthermore, if you want your employees to be happy in their role, money is not the answer. Money does not, and cannot, buy engagement or motivation. In his research, Dr. Herzberg discovered that the factors that produced job satisfaction were separate and distinct from those that led to job dissatisfaction.
When hygiene factors are reduced, work is dissatisfying. They are considered maintenance factors that are significant to reduce or eliminate dissatisfaction but they do not themselves lead to the satisfaction and motivation of personnel. That is, they only retain employees in the job. In line with Herzberg’s view, unsafe working conditions or a noisy work environment will lead employees to be dissatisfied with their job but their removal will not lead to a high level of motivation and satisfaction. Some other examples of hygiene factors are salary, status, security, supervision, and company policy.
These do not lead to positive satisfaction for long-term. But if these factors are absent / if these factors are non-existent at workplace, then they lead to dissatisfaction. In other words, hygiene factors are those factors which when adequate / reasonable in a job, pacify the employees and do not make them dissatisfied. These factors are extrinsic to work. Hygiene factors are also called as dis-satisfiers or maintenance factors as they are required to avoid dissatisfaction.
Herzberg and his collaborators published The Motivation to Work in 1959, proposing two factors influencing motivation at work which are hygiene factors that de-motivate when they are inappropriate, and motivators that sustain effort. (Jones, 2005). This theory suggest that administrator should recognizes both of the characteristics to improve job attitudes and
- Self-actualization needs like challenges in jobs, achievements etc. b) Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory- this theory is also known as the motivator-hygiene theory. Herzberg and his associates tried to find out the factors which are the “turn-ons” and “turn-offs” for an employee (Herzberg et al,1959). This theory points out the factors which make an employee feel good/bad about their jobs. The factors which lead to satisfaction are known as “motivators” and those leading to dissatisfaction are “hygiene factors”.
Eliminating just the hygiene factors that causes dissatisfaction will not result in satisfaction. In the same way working on just the motivating factors without eliminating the hygiene factors will not lead to satisfaction. For example, consider an individual who is working for a company. Assume that his relationships with supervisors or peers is strained and he experiences bad working conditions in the company. He will not get motivated just by offering him a high salary or by giving him additional responsibilities.
The Effect of Motivation on Employees’ Performance Motivation is a key determinant of employees’ performance and a poorly motivated force will be costly in terms of excessive staff turnover, higher expenses, negative morale and increased use of managements time (Jobber, 1994). Tyilana (2005) suggests that three motivational factors such as achievement, recognition and work itself cause job satisfaction and employees’ performance. Employees want to earn reasonable salary and payment, and employees desire their workers to feel that is what they are getting. The previous researches, it is seen that factors that affect the employees of different organizations in a negative way are- insufficient wage and job security, limited training programs, lack of new opportunities etc. Moreover, with the pace of time several other factors have been revealed those are negatively affect employee motivation and performance.
Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman, published his findings on the motivation level of employees in which they came up with the conclusion that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction should be considered as two different things which are continuous, and this belief then removed the traditional idea that satisfaction and dissatisfaction fall in to one continuum. This particular articles gives result based on an empirical test performed for Hygiene- theory for motivation given by Herzberg. Herzberg has collectively called recognition, achievement, work itself, advancement and responsibility as ‘Motivators’. The factors that Herzberg called as ‘Hygiene’ are those which are concerned with that affecting job dissatisfaction including job salary company
But Spector (1997) argues that most research on the personality-job satisfaction relationship has not given a theoretical explanation when they insist that the correlation exists. Martinez-Ponz (1990) found that intrinsic rewards were more effective in increasing job satisfaction and commitment than providing the employee with financial incentives. Tatsapaugh (1994) identified that lack of opportunity for advancement on the job is a factor which tempts an employee to quit the job. Studies showed that opportunity for advancement does not increase job satisfaction but some findings suggest that poor opportunity for advancement is related to job dissatisfaction (Levinson, Fetchkan and Hohenshil, 1988). Interesting work, open communications, and opportunities for advancement where marked as the top priorities in a study conducted by Cappelli (2000)