1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of submitting this report is that a critical review have been done on the journal ' The impact of employee motivation on organizational performance (A study of some selected firms in Anambara State Nigeria), which is using primary data for the research. Employee motivation is a widely researched area. This is due to the positive effects motivation has on organizations and their performance. Research shows that motivated employees tend to display more positive work attitudes than employees who are not motivated.
Motivation factors include achievement, responsibility of job or task, recognition for achievements, advancement to higher level duties, interest in their task or job and growth. These factors don’t dissatisfy if they are not present but by giving importance to these, satisfaction level of an employee is most probably going to grow. Satisfaction is frequently affected by the motivation factors which doesn’t only leads to job satisfaction but also increases the productivity of the company as they perform well in their job. Motivation factors facilitate to increase the satisfaction, however they are not that affective on
F. Herzberg formulated this particular approach in 1959. According to Herzberg, two fundamental factors can be labeled as the principal sources of motivation and motivation for employees. There are hygienic factors, such as those that cause job discontent such as working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and job
Motivation is the force that pushes us to do things: It is a result of everyone needs being satisfied so that employees have the inspiration and ability to complete the respective task given. So will employees be motivated and perform to their capability by giving them good welfares, benefits and money? Money makes the world go round, it can be considered as an engine to push human’s limits but peers motivation and intrinsic desire to a good job are the real motivators in today’s workplace. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation There are two types of motivation, intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation being employees are interested on the work because it is personally interesting, rewarding, challenging.
They describe an individual’s relationship to what he or she does, the content of the job and were labeled ‘motivators.’ Another cluster of factors describes the situation, the context or the environment, in which the job is done. These factors can prevent or cause dissatisfaction, but not cause satisfaction. Herzberg et al. term these factors ‘hygiene factors’ or ‘dissatisfafiers,’ in a later publication also ‘maintenance factors’ (Herzberg, 1966). According to Herzberg’s (Herzberg et al., 1959; Herzberg, 1996) Motivation-Hygiene theory, job satisfaction differs according to a variety of personal characteristics.
If employees are highly motivated then efficiency & productivity of the organization automatically increases. In fact, a study suggests that most employees can sustain their jobs by working at 25% of their capacity. However, if the same employees are motivated in a way that they are working for some reason, they achieve 85-90% of their ability (Hersey and Blanchard, 1988). Keeping this in mind, organization should seek to create an environment in workplace which enrich the life of those who work (Davidmann, 1989) and employee like working in that environment The most well-known theories of motivation
Motivators are those factors in the immediate work environment (7b) such as pleasure for performance, opportunities for advancement , promotion (6), achievement, autonomy, recognition and other fulfilled intrinsic aspects that create job satisfactions (5). These factors are similar to Maslow’s higher order needs and the work environment is positively affected by these factors which lead to improved productivity. Hygiene on the other hand are factors that do not necessarily focus on job satisfaction, however, prevents job dissatisfaction (6), will enhance dissatisfaction when not fulfilled and without increasing satisfaction, will create a suitable work environment (5). Hygiene is similar to the Maslow’s basic needs (6) and are those factors in the work environment related to annoying external conditions such as administration and company policy, supervision, relations with others, working conditions, supervision, status, job security (7), service conditions and remuneration that create job dissatisfaction
Indirectly it is talking about job satisfactory, although a worker may have an attitude problem. It is their job to complete a task in the best way possible. The motivating factor of such persons relies heavily on what’s driving him forward. We have to make sure as a manager that these kinds of people are best harnessed for the job required. If their performances are of high rates and we realize still that there is still some work to be done to motivate them, as a manager, we have to sit and converse with the employee.
As per this theory; the intrinsic elements are identified with job satisfaction and motivation, though extrinsic variables are connected with job dissatisfaction. Hygiene elements are the components that kill job dissatisfaction however don't motivate. Motivators are the elements that build job satisfaction and motivation. These elements are intrinsic. Today there are reactions that have emerged about this theory e.g.
External motivation is the retrieval of a reward; such as recognition, money, or a promotion (Kinicki & Fugate, 2018). Transitioning these terms to the workplace, businesses find motivation as a key concept to analyze because it helps to keep employees engaged in their roles. A study that analyzed motivational factors in businesses have found that employees that are not motivated in their careers often seek work in other locations. Therefore, businesses strive to find the factors that motivates their employees for job satisfaction and tenure (Rozman, Treven, & Cancer, 2017). David McClelland is a psychologist that developed the Acquired Needs Theory.