The next apparent open secret was employee layoffs. Downsizing was done to minimize labor costs and thereby increase the net income and hence prolong the life of the organization. Further the notion of job insecurity and trepidation interpreted a change in perception and attitude of the workers. Likewise an open disclosure of employee layoff led to resentment in terms of job security and further augmented job dissatisfaction in the minds of people. The causes for poor attitude and job dissatisfaction was also attributed to exponential technological advancements, globalization and usage of modern planning and strategies to extract more outcomes from lesser
Furthermore, the personality issues also influenced the job satisfaction of the employees. These attitude and personality will be reflected on the behaviors of the employees. In the company, there are many reasons why managers should consider about the job satisfaction of the employees. First of all, job satisfaction creates the organization citizenship behavior. Organization citizenship behavior defined by Organ (1988) as “Individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization” The commitment behavior from the satisfied employees will influenced toward the work environment and work attitude.
According to Maynard (1934) the objective of the workplace layout should be to reduce the working area so that the employee would use shorter motions and expend less effort when carrying out operations and procedures. The workplace environment is consisting of the elements that could be change such as office temperature, equipment and the processes in the organization. Employee productivity is one of the vital aspects in an organization’s performance. Their productivity could affect the organization whether it turns in a good or a bad way and can change the organization’s fate in instance. Thus, the organization should increase their employee productivity by providing a good workplace environment for them.
(S4) If any data on any variable from any participant is not present, the researcher is dealing with missing or incomplete data. (IS1) Some of the prominent causes of missing data can include data recordation (for instance miscodes), corrupted raw data fields and human error (S2) Fisher and Waclawski explain, that philosophically, the fact that missing data even exist is seen as analytically “unpleasant” (S2). But why is this really an issue is research? Missing data can be seen as an issue because even a small percent of missing data can contribute to large problems with an analysis leading to the
Economists are divided on the issue whether banking competition is valuable and benefits consumers or whether it is harmful and pushes banks into excessively risky activities. This theoretical debate has gained even more importance after the recent banking crises. To test these theories empirically, however, one must first identify the level of competition in the banking sector. Reduced form, nonstructural models (conjectural variation, Panzar and Rosse, 1987 test) all have their problems and cannot identify reliably the level of competition. The theoretical and applied literature has paid little attention to the competitive effects of multi-product operations in banking industry.
Error in sampling: If sampling size is too small or anomalous sapling can possibly a cause of sampling error. Sometimes there are unusual values in data that are result of either scaling error or human error, occur while data collection effect precision of estimates. These values maximize error variance which then adversely affects other estimates. Caution must be adopted to avoid these aberrant values as much as possible. b. Genotype Environment Interaction: Presence of this interaction may enlarge some component of variance like error variance.
It provides status to the individual and at the same time it binds him to the society. An employee who is satisfied with his job would perform his duties well and be committed to his job, and subsequently to his organization. Thus, it is of greatest importance for employers to know the factors that can affect their employees’ job satisfaction level since it would affect the performance of the organization as well. According to Meyer, John P., Stanley, David J.,
The reasons can include the recruiters who make hiring decision based on their own feelings and perceptions , great resume that give the wrong information to the recruiters, fatigue that causes the recruiters to make wrong decision, recruiters bias that affect the hiring process, and also the interviewees who cheat in the personality test. (Rubin) also stated that the distortions of the information can be one of the most important reasons of why the hiring managers today make bad hiring decisions. This is because the hiring managers recruit the person without realizing him or her actually give the inaccurate information on their resumes or application forms (Rubin). Not only this, there are also many books in the market that actually teaches the candidates to distort information during the interview session by giving untrue answers to different interview questions. In this case, distortions of information increase the possibility of hiring wrong employees.
That is the common reason why employees leave their jobs. Poor management and lack of understanding from the employers` side plays a negative role in this game. The reason of failure of a number of managers systems is now easily observed from the results of implementation of modern management theories that improve business 's productivity. Nowadays, a lot of different theories exist, but this essay will focus on two primary: McGregor`s X and Y theories and Herzberg’s theory
3.2.3 Herzberg Two-Factor Theory (Motivation/Hygiene Theory) Frederick Herzberg published the two-factor theory in Pittsburg during the late 1950s. This theory states that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are affected by two different sets of factors which are motivation and hygiene factors. Herzberg’s two factor theory is also known as the motivation/hygiene theory. Herzberg conducted a survey in which he asked participants to spot those things that made them feel positive towards their job and those that made them feel negative. As a result he found out that what makes people happy is in what they are doing and the way they are treated is what makes them unhappy.