This interaction can only occur when the photons energy interacts with the inner shell electrons in order to displace it . The photons energy has to be equal to or greater than the electrons binding energy it will be hitting in order for displacement to happen. Electron displacement is also known as a photoelectron (Shepard 2003). If the x-ray photons energy is fifty KeV or lower, the interaction will occur better rather than if the KeV was greater than fifty. If the KeV is greater than fifty, the photons will have too much energy and will create scatter, which could lead to the energy going through another interaction or it could just continue colliding into another electron.
The atom that the electron leaves becomes a positive ion , embedded in a sea of delocalized electrons. The interaction between the delocalized electrons and the positive ion create the force that binds and holds the metallic structure. The more electrons in the outer shell to become delocalized means the more positive ions there will be. The metallic bond and delocalized electrons within a metal are normally the cause of the properties the metal
It has been used to make significant contributions in many areas of physics and chemistry as well as in other areas of science. FTIR (also known as mid-IR) is the most commonly used vibrational technique for identification of material and authentication. Its applications include identification of functional groups or compound identification, determination of the strength of chemical bond and the calculation of thermodynamical properties. If one can obtain all the vibrational information from the molecule, its molecular structure can be determined. In the field of spectroscopy, two major techniques are used to detect molecular vibrational motions: Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Many compounds decompose at the temperatures required for efficient GC separation while HPLC separation can be achieved readily. However, GC is particularly useful in detecting residual solvents in formulations and is also invaluable in looking for degradation products. Amines and acids are not separated well by GC because they tend to be too polar. SPECTROSCOPY Spectroscopy is a technique that is used for the detailed analysis of the compound and its structure prediction. There are various techniques: UV-SPECTROSCOPY: Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
There are three types of capillary column that commonly used in gas chromatography. These include wall-coated open tubular (WCOT) column, support-coated open tubular (SCOT) column and fused silica open tubular (FSOT) column. In WCOT column, the internal wall of capillary is coated with a very fine film of liquid stationary phase. In SCOT column, capillary tube wall is lined with a thin layer of solid support on to which liquid phase is adsorbed. The separation efficiency of SCOT columns is higher than WCOT columns due to the greater surface area of the stationary phase coating.
One progress on TLC called high performance TLC (HPTLC; Sherma and Jain, 2000).HPTLC makes use of gel qualities that are finer, so that thinner plates and smaller. This allows faster separation times and better separation efficiency. HPTLC has improved reduced resolution and detection limits, so that the to walk two dimensions. To phospholipids visible on the TLC plates are used detection reagents. spots corresponding phospholipids may be carbonized by the addition of phosphomolybdic acid, sulfuric acid or copper sulfate in phosphoric acid, and then heating of the sample.
The effect of light should be cumulative if light only acts as a wave and little by little the light should add up until it leads electrons to be emitted. But what triggers the emission of electrons is a clear cut minimum of the frequency of the light. What this implies is that energy is directly linked to frequency and more energy with the higher light frequency. The discovery of the phenomena that the minimum amount of energy which could be gained or lost by an atom was a result of this observation. This minimum amount was named by Max Planck as quantum, plural of which is quanta, meaning how much.
When I was doing experiment, the factors that can change my result was controlled same. The factored that were controlled equally were volume of the acid, layers of paper, type of carbonate, and etc. However, the part that can be improved is the film canister. When I close the lid with paper between lid and body, the solidity that the lid is closed is different by the force that is applied to lid. Though I have closed until the surface of lid was even but as in different trials, some could be tightly closed or loosely closed.
The molecular lattice/framework holds separate diatomic molecules which is existent in both molten and gaseous states – which means that its reactivity with heat causes it to sublimate from solid’s to vapor. Iodine’s properties consists a melting point of 113.5 degree Celsius and a boiling point of 184.35 degree Celsius. Iodine is the most beautiful and striking of all elements. As it’s a solid, when heated, it doesn’t melt, but it sublimes instead. The result of iodine vapor consists of a violet color and a strong odor that is irritating to a human’s sense of smell.