Leah Romero 10/30/2017 Conclusion Lab 3 Chem 102L In lab 3, fundamentals of chromatography, the purpose was to examine how components of mixtures can be separated by taking advantage of different in physical properties. A huge process in this lab was paper chromatography, which was used to isolate food dyes that are found in different drink mixes. The different chromatograms of FD&C dyes were compared to identify which dyes are present in each of the mixes. Chromatograms where made for the known FD&C and for the three Kool-Aid samples. The retention factor for each dye was calculated.
Task 1 M1 Describe the scientific principles behind each of the three procedure above. Vacuum filtration is a procedure when a sold needs separating from a solvent to react the mixture. Then the mixture of a solid is measured through the filtration paper in a Buhner funnel. The liquid is drained through the funnel into the flask. Equipment • Filter paper • Buhner funnel • Tubing • Clean solvent • Disposable dropper Method 1.
The main objective of this experiment was the formation of phenacetin from the synthesis of acetaminophen. This was done through a chemical reaction known as the Williamson ether synthesis using techniques of refluxing, vacuum filtration and recrystallization incorporating a mixed solvent system. A further objective of this experiment was to study the formation of the product (phenacetin). Such validation was completed by using techniques for determining the melting point, calculating percent yield, and IR (infrared spectroscopy) of the resultant product. Our reaction yielded 3.696% of phenacetin product.
Density Verification Lab Objective: To determine solutions the different densities of regular and irregular shaped solids, pure liquids, and solutions. Summary of Procedure: I. First off all safety protocol and procedures should be followed and in place to begin the lab. First a solid shape is obtained from the lab cart at the front of the classroom. Locate and record its identification number.
Distillation Distillation is used to remove impurities from a mixture – one component of which must be a liquid. Boiling points are utilized in determining the identity of the unknowns. Types of distillation include
INTRODUCTION A gas chromatograph (GC) can be utilized to analyze the contents of a sample quantitatively or in certain circumstances also qualitatively. In the case of preparative chromatography, a pure compound can be extracted from a mixture. The principle of gas chromatography can be explained as following: A micro syringe is used to inject a known volume of vaporous or liquid analyte into the head or entrance of a column whereby a stream of an inert gas acts a carrier (mobile phase). The column acts as a separator of individual or chemically similar components. A column is typically packed with a stationary non-volatile matter (stationary phase).
The reaction that occurs can be investigated via the adding of the liver extract which contains the arginase to urea concentrations and distilled water. The amount of urea formed is determined via spectrophotometric analysis α-INPP. The urea produced was known via the color reaction with the α-INPP, it is the reagent used for the colorimetric determination of urea. (Barry J, et al. 1984).
In our experiment, with the help of a pipette, we put 15 drops of starch (amylose), 15 drops of an enzyme substance that specifically breaks up starch (amylase), and 15 drops of the Alkaline water, into a test tube. Next, we added 15 drops of the Lugol’s Iodine solution into the same test tube. We measured how long it took for the substances that we were testing to change from their dark brown color, but the substance with the Alkaline never noticeably changed color. The Lugol’s Iodine test searches substances for complex carbs. In our case, if the substance changed to a light brown color, the test was negative and the substance contained simple carbohydrates (like glucose), and if the substance changed to a dark brown or black color, then the test was positive and the substance contained complex carbohydrates (like starch).
The retention of analyte molecules happened due to stronger interactions with the stationary phase than the mobile phase. In another words, there is higher affinity of sample towards stationary phase than mobile phase that caused retention. The interaction types can be divided into Dispersive, Dipole and Hydrogen
Extension of the technique includes expunging the desired “band” from a stained gel viewed with a UV transilluminator. • In order to visualize nucleic acid molecules in agarose gels, ethidium bromide or SYBR Green are commonly used dyes. Illumination of the agarose gels with 300-nm UV light is subsequently used for visualizing the stained nucleic