In a situation where there are weapons, often times the victim may be focused on the weapon and not the physical features of the suspect. This is another factor in eyewitness misidentification. Another reason there may be eyewitness misidentification as mentioned by Thompson (2009), “…when witnesses are either very young or very old or have used alcohol or controlled substances, studies have shown an increased risk of erroneous identification” (p. 644). These factors cause stress to the victim and can lead to the psychological causes of misidentification that was mentioned
We can’t process it all. We can also fail to see big things if we just decide we don’t need to pay attention to them. For example, a person could miss a kangaroo that appeared right in front of them. This is called inattentional blindness or change blindness.
In the article “The Big One” Berkeley seismologist Robert Nadeau states “ A lot of randomness is lack of knowledge.” In this statement the word randomness is referring to earthquakes meaning we only have a small knowledge about the science of this activity. Nadeau uses this statement to convince us to realise that earthquakes cannot truly be predicted, in reality the only resource we have is presumptions. Scientists prove that we do not have enough of the necessary tools needed to produce the correct idea of when an earthquake is actually going to occur.
Something potentially responsible for this phenomenon is the Backfire Effect. David McRaney describes the Backfire Effect with great accuracy in his article “The Backfire Effect”: “coming or going, you stick to your beliefs instead of questioning them. When someone tries to correct you, tries to dilute your misconceptions, it backfires and strengthens them instead” (1). This unbreakable resolve for maintaining beliefs in contradiction to logic prevents us from seeing truth effectively. However, what drives the Backfire Effect?
In general, the phenomenon of group polarization will only occur under the following circumstances: There are many kinds of information but there is a large degree of ambiguity and a large number of contradictions are gathered. Involved in the relatively vulnerable groups, the strong party did not promptly properly handle the contrary, trying to hide the
Again based on the GEMS ( Reason, 1990), this situation may be arised from tendency to haste - not giving adequate consideration to alternative strategies- and disregarding contradictory evidence -despite exceptionally low temperature evidence, they ignored it in favour of evidence that there were no correlation found between low temperature and blowby gasses which eroded the O-rings in previous mission. Conclusion and Advice After the disaster, as Presidental Commission found that organizational culture and decision making process seems as the key factor that played role in the disaster. Moreover, political forces, pressure of economic considerations, production pressures and managerial wrongdoings were other factors that led to unsafe decisions by getting rid of professional and technical safety culture and eventually causing the disaster. In order to prevent the future errors like this disaster, the most required advice may be the fixing the communication failures in hierarchical system of the
6) is a “dilemma stemmed from not having clearly established policies, procedures, or rules for handling the situation.” Another way of explaining uncertainty is simply not doing something based on the “complete lack of data”, according to David Wilkinson’s article the difference between ambiguity and uncertainty (2015, para. 5). General Patton’s courage to incorporate aerial attacks into his operational maneuvers showed his ability to avoid the ethical trap of uncertainty and set the precedence for utilizing aircraft during combat for tactical
It denies that the security of individuals in modern times is threatened, not by military forces, but by criminals and terrorists, the forces of nature, disease, and poverty. The traditional interstate security paradigm has no place for most of these threats, and considers many of them to fall under low politics, issues to be examined when there is time to spare. Thus when discussing issues of security realism becomes a very narrow and constricting concept as most security issues now occur within states instead of between states. This essay posits that while realism is valuable in many aspects of understanding security it falls short in its conceptual and practical application due to its rigidity and longevity amidst a global political arena that is seeing a rapid change in the origin of security threats. It seeks to highlight the realist theory, recognize that human security is a viable option in security analysis and present human security as a new era of security
Smola and Sutton (2002) concluded that work values were more influenced by generational experiences than by age and maturation. McNeese-Smith & Crook (2003) found significant differences only for values of variety and economic returns, the younger the generation, the higher these values. Generation Y has been found to be significantly different from BB generation and X generation in his value to autonomy and work-life balance, searching for new work opportunities that might met his needs (Smola
While it is true that sometimes one choice seems more logical than another, one cannot simply assume the outcome of either. For all one knows, these assumptions are all just a facade, merely just the tip of the iceberg. Hidden beneath the surface are a plethora of other possible outcomes, all of which could cause more disaster than originally assumed. In “The Road Not Taken,” the protagonist exclaims “....and looked down one as far as I could, to where it bent in the undergrowth.” This elucidates the idea that sometimes one is unaware of the possible outcomes of a decision they make.
It’s universally known that weather can be dangerous and unpredictable. Scientific advances have given people a false sense of security. Sometimes life shows people that they are not in control as they think they might be. In “Storm Warnings”, Adrienne Rich anxiously warns the reader of the oncoming storm but accepts the fact that not every problem is avoidable.
1. ITMO 540 HOMEWORK 3 Name: Payal Desai CWID: A20362549 REVIEW QUESTIONS: Answer 1: White noise is the static noise that is heard in the background. Some amount of it is always present but too much of white noise does not enable a clear conversation because we lose the signal. Answer 2: Impulsive noise is the one which occurs discretely.
However, strong as this container is, it cannot protect the contents from concussion. And most assuredly it offers no protection against the consequences of repeated concussions which can lead to the development of CTE. And unlike orthopedic injuries, the effects of this syndrome only manifest themselves over the course of years and they are always irreversible and often devastating. The piece of equipment meant to protect the head is the helmet, which is excellent at protecting the container but not the contents. Furthermore, given the limitations imposed by physics, anatomy and neurophysiology, I question whether there is any helmet design which can do much more to limit the frequency or severity of concussions.
Welsh and Harris (2013) seeks to explain the inability of the justice programs to not work in stating, “The problem is that many criminal justice interventions fall short of their goals because of poor planning, poor implementation, and poor evaluation. It is fair to say we have not yet discovered “what works” to reduce crime.” From this, it is clear that the development of interventions is not the issue and not the cause for them to not succeed in their mandates but the problem is within their planning. Welsh and Harris (2013) believes that in order to
Nonetheless, as Feldman stated that it is quite difficult “to formulate a satisfactory philosophical analysis of the concept of death,” and it is equally difficult to convey a satisfactory philosophical analysis of suicide. “In particular, identifying a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for suicide that fits well with our typical usage of the term is especially challenging”. Additionally, using the term suicide has its own drawbacks because of the negative meanings associated which a judgmental rendering of the term that often presumes moral judgments that are not valued. In fact, the term suicide was not documented before the mid-seventh century and I believe it is mostly a new word. This may seem to be mild unimportant linguistic history, but it will relate to the problem of adequately defining suicide, for the olden times there was no definition for the act of killing oneself.