The infant is uncertain about the world in which they live during this stage. The infants look for their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care to resolve those feelings of uncertainty. Success in this stage will result in the virtue of hope. For example, if the care has been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust
Theories, Key Concepts, Principles, and Assumptions Two theories that will be discussed in this paper is Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development and John Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment. Erikson’s theory is considered psychosocial, emphasizing the importance of social and cultural factors within a lifespan, from infancy to later adulthood. Erikson’s theory is broken down into eight consecutive age-defined stages. During each stage, a person experiences a psychosocial crisis that contributes to their personality development. Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development.
On the other hand, in a society where assertiveness is viewed negatively, the child will get negative responses from parents and peers and this will affect his development into an adult. Erikson believed that each crisis depends on the interactions between the individual and the social environment as family and culture construct
He said that alienation from cultural traditions seemed to be related to the symptoms displayed by others, which resulted in an uncertain self-image or self-identity. His theory of the identity explains that as human beings grow and develop, they experience a series of personal conflicts. Erikson’s concepts were well explained. Erikson
There is now strong evidence to support the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy, coping cat, as a first – line treatment for children and adolescence with anxiety. Articles and researches showed that anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental illness disorders in children and adolescents, but they often go untreated and undetected. Identification and effective intervention of childhood anxiety disorders can decrease the negative effect of these disorders on academic achievements and social relation and functioning in youth and their persistence into adulthood (Connolly & Nanayakkara, 2009). Multi studies focused on evidence-based treatment interventions for childhood anxiety disorders, and on the effect of applied intervention like coping cat program on anxiety level in childhood anxiety disorders (Lenz, 2016; Podell et al., 2010). Although the literature covered a wide variety of such issues, this review will focus on major issue which showed in different themes throughout the literature reviewed.
If an individual can successfully resolve each crisis within each stage the healthier their development will be. This paper will examine in detail Erickson’s eight stages of psychosocial development. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Stage One: Trust vs. Mistrust Trust versus mistrust is Erik Erickson’s first psychosocial stage. This stage is mostly experienced the first year of life (the book). The development of trust that an infant engages in sets the positive or negative expectation they have on the world (Karkouti, 2014).
According to the Stages of Psychosocial Development suggested by Erik Erikson (1950), students are in the Adolescence stages, the task in this stage is to develop a sense of identity, for example “Who am I?”, and the development of the sense of identity is based on the peer system. If they cannot fulfill the task, they will have role confusion, they cannot have consistent sense of self identity, therefore this cause the problem of students run away from school (王壘，2016). Also, they run away from school because they have lower self-esteem. According to the Five Building Blocks of Self-esteem suggested by Michele Borba (2003), there are some reasons showing students have lower self-esteem: Firstly, students do not have a sense of selfhood because they cannot accept themselves and identify themselves are unique in their interpersonal relationship, therefore this cause the problem of students run away from school (Borba, 2003). Besides, students do not have a sense of affiliation because they cannot get accepted and recognized, so they cannot feel connected with others and get self identity from others, therefore this cause the problem of students run away from school (Borba,
However, if the person will remain “stuck” on a certain stage, problems in future life may occur. This paper will focus on Freud 's psychosexual stages of development and possible effects due to fixation on one of the stages. The first stage of psychosexual development according to Freud is The Oral Stage, spanning from birth until the age of one year. Throughout this stage, the main source of the interaction of the child is through the mouth. In this way, the sucking reflex is greatly important.
According to his theory, each stage of psychosexual development must be met successfully for proper development; if we lack proper nurturing and parenting during a stage, we may become stuck in, or fixated on, that stage. Psychoanalysis focused on early childhood, postulating that many of the conflicts which arise in the human mind develop in the first years of a person 's life. Freud demonstrated this in his theory of psychosexuality, in which the libido (sexual energy) of the infant progressively seeks outlet through different body zones (oral, anal, phallic, and genital) during the first five to six years of life. According to (Crandell 2009) Freud proposed three key psychosexual stages of development—oral, anal, and phallic (see Figure 1) Figure 1, showing the first 3 stages of psychosexual development Sigmund Freud, few weeks before his death (1939) London Stages, development and Parent’s role Freud emphasized that a child 's first five years were the most important years to social and personality development (Newman