Panthalassa Ocean Essay

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2.1 Tectonic History and Regional Tectonics of the study area: The Himalayas were resulted during collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates in middle to late Eocene age (Stoneley 1974,). The Eurasian plate was 1comprised of three broad geological territories, which from north to south are the Laurasian, Tethyan and Gondwanian domains. During late Paleozoic, all these domains were part of the super continental mass called as Pangea, that were surrounded by a universal ocean called as Panthalassa. A part of Panthalassa Ocean called as Tethys Ocean was located between northern and southern parts of the Pangea. Laurasia and Gondwanaland were formed by the splitting of Pangea (Fig 2.1) in late Triassic. Laurasia and Gondwanaland were separated…show more content…
(Abbasi 1989). 1Main Karakoram Thrust MKT Kohistan Island Arc (KIA) Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) Northern Deformed Fold and Thrust Belt (NDFTB) Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) Southern Deformed Fold and Thrust Belt (SDFTB) Salt Range Thrust and Trans Indus ranges (SRT) Punjab Foredeep12.2.1 Main Karakoram Thrust: Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) was previously named as the Northern Suture (Tahir 1979). It is northern most member of North Pakistan thrust system (Fig 2.3) which was 1formed as a result of the collision between the Karakoram block in the north and the Kohistan Island Arc in the south and separates deformed metasedimentary and igneous rocks of Asian landmass in north from Kohistan Island Arc in south. Along MKT Kohistan sequence came in contact with Asian plate about 100 Ma ago (Coward et al., 1986) 2.2.2 Kohistan Island Arc: Kohistan-Ladakh terrain was generated as a result of intra-oceanic subduction during cretaceous (Treloar 1989). General trend of KIA is east…show more content…
It 12is bounded by Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) and Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) in the south and north respectively. Fig 2.3 Map showing location and major tectonic trends of Indo-Pakistan sub-continent (Modified after Sarwar and Dejong 1979) Fig 2.4 Tectonic Terrains in Pakistan (After Qayyum 13et. al, 1996) 2.2. 3 Main Mantle Thrust: Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) was 14formed as a result of collision between Kohistan-Ladakh Arc and Indian Plate during Eocene and then 8subduction of Indian Plate under the Kohistan Island Arc along 3MMT with major uplift during 30-15 Ma (Tahirkheli et al., 1979). The 1MMT bounds the KIA to the south and the Indian Plate to the north.42.2. 4 Northern Deformed Fold and Thrust Belt: The northern deformed1fold and thrust belt is bounded by MBT separating it from the southern deformed fold and thrust belt (Abbasi 1989). Its northern boundary is marked MMT (Main Mantle Thrust) which 16separate it from Southern Deformed Thrust Belt. It is a 7belt of heavily deformed sedimentary, metasedimentary and igneous rocks which stretches from Kurram area in the west up to the Kashmir basin in the

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