Hindu Philosophy In Hinduism

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Hindu philosophy is a vast philosophical system which highlights the inner man and his reality
IMPORTANT TEXTS: (besides epics)
The Vedas – the oldest extant literary works of the Aryan mind; Veda means “knowledge” in Sanskrit.
– reveal a subtle combination between idealism and naturalism, of gods and of nature.
The Upanishads – Mostly meditations and deeper reflections on the Vedas.
– “Upanishad” is derived from the word “sad,” which means “to sit down;” “Upa” means “nearby;” “ni” means “devotedly.”
– ‘to sit down near the teacher in a devoted manner to receive instruction on the highest reality.”
– It is believed more than 200 Upanishads exist but the traditional number is 108 based on the Muktikopanishad. Of these, 11 or 12 are regarded as
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Vijnamayatman – the self that is the principle of intellection. (intellect)
5. Annandamayatman – the self that is dependent on bliss. It is the innermost kernel of man and of nature as a whole. It is in contrast with the reality of experience, that which lies beyond the other side, unutterable, unfathomable. (bliss)
The Development of the concept of the self from the States of Consciousness (Mandukya Upanishad):
1. Vaisvanara or Vishva – The Waking State – This is a state common to all men. It is directed to the objects of the external world, thus to gross objects. It has consciousness of the external world. Here we find a subject-object duality.
2. Taijasa – The Dreaming State – This is a state where the mind has for its objects phantasms or images of objects of the external world. thus here we find a subject-object duality.
3. Prajna - The Deep Sleep State – This is the state that has no dream image; hence no objects. This has no subject-object duality. there is a shadow because we see here a shadow of supreme bliss, not positive bliss.
4. Turiya – The Fourth State – This is the suppression of the consciousness of objects and union with the eternal knowing subject. This is the state of pure

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