The knee joint is one of the strongest and most important joints in the human body. It allows the lower leg to move relative to the thigh while supporting the body’s weight (Taylor, n.d.) as knee joint is one of the major weights bearing joint in the body. Knee joint plays an important role in our daily lives such as walking, running, sitting and standing. It allows physiological movement such as flexion and extension. The knee joint is also known as tibiofemoral joint. It is a synovial hinge joint formed between three bones which are the femur, tibia and patella (Taylor, n.d.). There are two rounded, convex processes which are known as condyles on the distal end of the femur. The distal end of the femur meets two rounded, concave condyles at the proximal end of the tibia (Tyalor, n.d.). A thick, triangular bone which is known as patella lies anterior surface between the femur and tibia.
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a nerve disorder that occurs at the site of an injury. It occurs especially after injuries from high-velocity impacts such as those from bullets or shrapnel. However, it may occur without apparent injury. The arms or legs are usually involved.
Physical therapy is a profession that requires repeated assessment of patients and the ability to connect with them to help them in the healing process. There are many different places that physical therapy services are provided such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, sports and fitness facilities, and much more. The career interest I chose for my Senior Project is physical therapy because I enjoy helping people and that's what physical therapy is all about. I want to focus my paper on the types of patients that utilize physical therapy and the duration of treatment for different diagnoses. There are many various reasons patients utilize physical therapy but the four most common are post surgery patients, function loss, injuries, and pain patients.
1. Integrative assessments/ Critical thinking on p. 172 (10th ed), p. 174 (11th ed.)and? in 12th ed.. it's a question on archaelogical find..
Although many surgical approaches have been defined in the literature regarding the mode and timing of treatment, no consensus exists. Many autogenous and alloplastic biomaterials have been recommended for use to correct orbital bone defects. The autogenous biomaterials used for orbital floor reconstruction include bone, cartilage, and fascia grafts. Resorption of the graft, a long operation time, and donor area morbidity are among factors limiting use of autogenous grafts (12,13). These drawbacks are especially prominent in bone grafts.
When Dr. Erik Nilssen recognized the anxiety and frustration that patients were dealing with as they sought medical care through the traditional system, he decided to create a state-of-the art facility centered around the patient: It is this vision that led to the creation of Nilssen Orthopedics.
In this chapter, an exhaustive literature review on the works reported in the area of hip prosthesis has been presented. Literatures available in the area of hip prosthesis are broadly classified into the following categories.
The philosophy of those advocating the composite facelift is that gravity has an effect on all the soft tissues of the face, so lifting the skin alone is not adequate. The composite facelift uses the same incisions described for the traditional facelift procedure, but the dissection is carried out at a deeper level. The skin is left attached to the underlying orbicularis, SMAS, and platysma muscles.
Doctors remove healthy skin from the donor site and transplant it onto the recipient site. The skin graft will connect with the muscle cells underneath and starts to regenerate skin cells. It prevents the wound from dehydration and infection.
2. Femur is largest and longest bone in human body. Femur is strongest in compression when compared to the tension and shear. The structure of femur is anisotropy , but for analytical calculation purpose .It is considered as is tropic material. The properties of femur aften compared to the man-made materials. The femur mechanical properties are very potent strong, and impressive.
Because of the histological compatibility and the immunogenic advantage, autologic bone grafts nowadays still serve as the golden standard in bone substitution. Moreover, autografts have several key components to achieve osteoinduction (i.e., bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), osteogenesis (i.e., osteoprogenitor cells) and osteoconduction (i.e., three-dimensional and porous matrix). Autografts do involve harvesting bone, with can be obtained from the patient’s iliac crest,
Bone is a dynamic living tissue that is made up of metabolically active cells that are integrated into a rigid framework, 30% organic matrix, and 70% minerals. A vascular network of nutrient, metaphyseal, and periosteal vessels richly supplies adult bone. In a fracture or fusion model, the healing potential of bone, is decided by a variety of systemic and local factor including biochemical, biomechanical, cellular, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms. An incessantly occurring state of bone deposition, resorption, and remodeling facilitates the healing process (Kalfas, 2001). A lot of growth factors and regulatory proteins have been interlaced in bone repair. Regarding these matter, transforming growth factor-B appears to be the major regulator
Cranioplasty is the surgical repair of acquired or congenital defects of cranium. Archeological evidences suggest that in prehistorical era , cranial defect reconstruction was done with gold, silver and shells. Later it was followed by the use of bone grafts, metal and plastics.[2,3]Apart from metals like titanium, Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the latest material being used for cranioplasty. It was first utilized in 1940 and can be moulded intraoperatively by hands or using 3D printed models into the shape of a cranial defect.
The utilization of dental implants as a viable treatment option for the management of missing teeth has proved to be a successful and predictable option. (1) The original protocol proposed by Branemark (2) involved the placement of an implant in an edentulous area after adequate healing following tooth loss. The placed implant should be submerged and covered for periods ranging between six to eight months to allow for adequate healing without any exposure to the oral environment to prevent infection and provide better primary stability. Following the healing period, a second surgical procedure is performed to uncover the implant and allow for its prosthetic rehabilitation.
All patients were operated under general anaesthesia with orotracheal intubation in lithotomy position. The axis of the flap was a line joining apex of femoral triangle to the medial femoral condyle. The dominant pedicle was located at the apex of the femoral triangle around 6-8 cm below the inguinal ligament and it was detected preoperatively by Doppler examination. The width of the flap ranged from 7-11 cm whereas the length ranged from 15-25 cm. Dissection was done distal to proximal in the subfascial distal plane over the muscle. After harvesting flap was rotated to cover the testicular and perineal area and creating a scrotum with tension free