Typical Adult Anatomy: Bones A fully functioning hip joint is a vital portion of anatomy, from birth to advanced adulthood. The hip is responsible for the stabilization of a person’s body weight whether the person is static or dynamic. The physical joint is classified as a ball-and-socket joint, the head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis. With how the head is oriented in the socket, the joint is able to withstand tremendous amounts of pressure and allows it to be a strong and stable portion of the human anatomy. The design of the hip is actually very flexible and allows for a wide range of movements in different axis.
It’s contributes to the multiple regions of the skull: anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal roof, , orbit, lateral wall of the cranial vault and roof and lateral wall of the nasal cavity, It’s articulates with the following bones: The ethmoid bone, the frontal bone, the zygomatic bones, the parietal bones, the temporal bones, the palatine bones, occipital bone and the vomer (Liebgott, 2011). It is consist from four main part : and three paired processes—greater wings, lesser wings and pterygoid processes (Tandon, 2009) 3.1.2 body of sphenoid bone• Its reprecent the central part and contains two sphenoidal air sinuses, It has multiple surfaces: Superior surface—bears a sulcus chiasmaticus and Dorsum sellae with two posterior clinoid processes lie posteriorly Inferior surface—has the rostrum, Two lateral surfaces—Each has a carotid sulcus for internal corotid artery. Anterior surface—presents sphenoidal crest in midline. On either side are openings of sphenoidal air sinuses and sphenoidal concha. Posterior surface fuses with basilar part of occipital bone by 25th year .
1.1 Inguinal Hernia The inguinal canal is a passage in the anterior abdominal wall that in men carries the spermatic cord and in women it is called as round ligament of uterus. The inguinal canal is larger in size and more prominent in men compared to women.1 The inguinal canal is made up of two walls (anterior and posterior), a roof, and a floor. The anterior wall is formed by the aponeurosis of the external oblique and the posterior wall is formed by the transversalis fascia and also the roof is formed by the transversalis fascia, transversus abdominis and internal oblique. The floor is made by the inguinal ligament (a ‘rolled up’ portion of the external oblique aponeurosis) and medially thickened by the lacunar ligament.2 The intra abdominal pressure is essential to maintain the normal integrity of inguinal canal. During periods of increased intra-abdominal pressure, the abdominal viscera are pressed into the inguinal canal and to prevent herniation, the muscles of the anterior and posterior wall contract, and ‘clamp down’ on the canal.
(6) 85. Class I Occlusion Angle’s class I molar relationship states that, firstly, the mid-buccal.groove of the first mandibular molar into contact with the mesiobuccal.cusp of the first maxillary.molar comes. Next, the mesial surface of the medial marginal ridge comes into contact with the distal surface of the distal marginal ridge of the maxillary molar. Lastly, mesopalatal cusps of maxillary molars sit in the central fossa of the mandibular
Although the hamstring functions as a good synergist to the gluteus maximus, it is not designed to be the sole hip extensor. Synergistic dominance by the hamstrings can lead to premature fatigue, overuse and overactivation of the hamstring muscles. This could put the client at risk of hamstring strains, hamstring cramps and SI joint pain. - See more at:
Vertical forces are directed more centrally on the mandibular alveolar ridge, which gives more stability to the lower denture. The upper posteriors can be positioned more buccal of the ridge because the lingual cusps are active and should be situated at the top of the maxillary ridge. In many cases, this prevents an arrangement in cross bite and improves the aesthetic aspect of the dentures. Balanced occlusion with a freedom of centric is easy to achieve within an area of 2 to 3 mm around the centric stops.
The nasal septum bisects the nasal cavity and comprises three portions: the bony perpendicular plate of the ethmoid (superoanterior) and the vomer (posterior and anteroinferior), a cartilaginous anterior triangle, and an inferior membranous columella that divides the nares anteriorly. Laterally, the nasal wall has three or more horizontal ridges termed turbinates, with a corresponding meatus below each (Figure 1.4). During the sixth week of embryologic development, before cartilage forms in the walls of the primitive nasal cavities, linear outgrowths of the lining epithelium occur on the sides and roof of each nasal side. Each outgrowing gutter becomes a meatus, whereas the ridges left behind form the turbinates.8,16 The inferior turbinate is the largest, arising from the medial wall of the maxillary sinus. The smaller and more posterior middle, superior, and supreme (if present) turbinates are outcroppings of the ethmoid bone.
The latissmus dorsi and the medial gluteal are both movers and range of movement muscles. They enable the legs to move back when one of the hooves touche the ground. For the muscles to be strong and elastic and to not have spasms and lock sections and to deliver efficient motion, the hamstring group and the deep caudal pectoral muscles give additional strength to the "lats" and the "gluts". The "elastic ring" muscles of the trunk give equine movement its brilliance by storing and releasing energy from motions of the legs. There is also a connection from the bottom system of muscles to the tongue via the hypoid apparatus.
The hip is a true ball and socket joint and the arrangement gives the hip the large amount of motion needed for daily activities like walking, squatting and stair climbing. The bones that form the hips are the femur or far bone and pelvis. The top of the femur shape like a ball called femoral head that fits into a round socket on the side of the pelvis. This socket is named as acetabulum. The femoral head is attached to the rest of the femur by a short section of a bone called femoral neck.
The medial part below the CA forms the dentate gyrus. The hippocampus is differentiated from other cortical areas in the brain due to its archicortical architecture and highly laminar organization. The Cornu Ammonis is subdivided into CA1, CA2 and CA3 region with CA3 proximal to the dentate gyrus. Sometimes the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus is regarded as the CA4 region.