The femoral head is attached to the rest of the femur by a short section of a bone called femoral neck. A large bone protruding out from the top of the femur which located next to the femoral neck is called the greater trochanter. Large and important muscles connect to greater trochanter. Figure 1: Showing the anatomy of the hip joint In the hip, Articular cartilage covers inner parts of the femur and socket portion of the acetabulum in the pelvis. The cartilage is especially thick in the upper and back part of the socket.
REVIEW OF LITRATURE ANATOMY OF KNEE JOINT The embryological development of knee joint occurs from the leg bud in the 4th week. The formation of femur, tibia and fibula occurs in the 6th week. The knee joint embryologically arises from blastemal cells with the formation of the patella, cruciate ligaments and meniscus in the 7th week.22 Knee joint is formed by two condylar joints between the femoral condyles (medial and lateral both) and the corresponding tibial condyles. Knee joint also has a gliding joint between the patella and the corresponding femur articular surface. The fibula is not involved directly in forming the articular surface of the knee joint.23 Figure 1: Knee joint.
The ankle and knee joint angle and moments of 5 steps on the affected side will be taken to get the average in each spring level in each and every participant. The mechanical property of the AFO in each spring level will be calculated by the custom device (Gao et al., 2011). The AFO moment will be standardized to body mass (Nm/kg) in each participant. The plantarflexion resistance moment and the plantarflexion angles will be defined as negative. The average of the AFO moment in a gait cycle of the ten participants on four spring levels will be taken.
The aspects that will be explained are movement, protection and the differences. The muscle and skeletal system work together to produce movement. An example of movement is the bones and muscles in the arm that help lift up an object. Tendons are fibrous tissue that connects adjacent bones to a muscle. A tendon is located at the top joint of a bone.
The forearm is a complex anatomical structure between the elbow and the wrist that serves an important function of the upper extremity. The forearm consists of two parallel bones, the radius and the ulna. It forms a functional unit that can be considered both as an axis and a non synovial joint (). This “joint” can be best understood in term of two “condyles”, the distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) and the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) (). The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally.
I intend to explore one disease of the musculoskeletal system and find out what it is like to live with said disease and found out how much people really know about it. What is anatomy and physiology? Anatomy: The study of the different parts of the body and the relationships between them. Physiology: How each of these parts functions. Composition of bone Bones are made up of many different cells and minerals.
The hip joint is the attachment between the hind limb and the axial skeleton. The pelvis girdle consists of two identical hipbones that ventrally meet at the pelvic symphysis. Dorsally they articulate with the sacrum. Each hipbone consists of the ilium, pubis and ischium that have different ossification centers. In adults, these bones are completely fused and their bodies form the cavity for the articulation with the femur, the acetabulum (8).
Anatomically, the patella is of a disproportionate oval-shaped sesamoid bone which articulates with the femoral sulcus. Its proximal attachment is the quadriceps tendon which envelopes the structure and distally at the apex, the patellar tendon attaches. Both the tendons are functional as to stabilise the patella bone in the knee joint during movements or even when the joint is static. Also, the patellar retinacula are attached to both the medial and lateral sides of the patella. When the tendon is overused chronically without given adequate time to heal, tendinosis known as Jumper’s Knee can occur in response to the damage.
In earlier days, people who did not have knowledge or skills could also apply manual therapy but nowadays basic knowledge and experience is required to practice manipulation. Clinicians are advised to take patient informed consent if they are applying manipulation especially cervical manipulations (Rushton, et al., 2014) for safe practice. Mechanical neck pain and manual therapy Mechanical neck pain and manual therapy has a long history and continuous to play a significant role in the treatment protocols. Manual therapy is thought to work in two major dimensions mechanical and neural. Mechanical meaning stretching of skin, muscle and oscillatory movement in cervical joints or thrust given to these joints.
How Skeletal and Muscular Systems Connect Together to Create Body Movement Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons, which use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts. Skeletal muscle needs to pass over a joint to create movement. Muscle contraction pulls one bone towards another and thus moves the limb. Muscles never work alone, any movement results from the actions of several muscles. Muscles mostly work in pairs.
A 2-arm plastic goniometer determined knee range of motion. Yoshinori Hiyama et. al., stated the “goniometer was placed over the lateral epicondyle of the femur, the proximal arm aligned with the greater trochanter of the femur, and the distal arm aligned with the lateral malleolus of the ankle.” In the supine position, passive knee flexion and extension were instructed with full passive knee range of motion. A 40-cm high chair without seat arms were used for all patients testing the TUG score. Then the patients walked 3 meters at normal speed, turned around and sat down in the chair.
MODALITIES OF FEMORAL FIXATION The goals of femoral component revision are to achieve implant stability while restoring hip biomechanics. Multiple fixation options exist for proximal femoral reconstruction including cemented components with or without associated bone restoration techniques, uncemented components, and patient specific implants such as modular or custom components. As previously mentioned, the Paprosky classification is most commonly used to describe proximal femur deficiency [31-33, 52]. This classification scheme allows effective communication between surgeons and is a good predictor of surgical complexity. Intra-operative bone deficits and reconstruction options can be predicted based upon pre-operative classification of the proximal femoral deficiency.