It is proven through belief that hip-hop was indirectly created from and influenced by the scatting and improvisation of jazz. Some even refer to hip-hop as the “jazz of the younger generation” (difference between hip-hop and jazz, 2011). Both jazz and hip-hop used their lyrics to express life. They also share many Afrocentric characteristics. They have polyphony, rhythm, repetition, and call and response in common.
Swing was first introduced by black musicians. Some of them included Duke Ellington, Fletcher Henderson, and Jimmy Lunceford. Interestingly enough, because of the popularity of the music, African Americans were able to produce music and bring it into white society for them to listen to. These African American musicians also influenced many of the white musicians as well. White jazz musicians had taken inspiration from black jazz music for many years, but because of swing, they became even more deeply devoted to integrating this music to blacks and whites.
Jazz, on the other hand, grew out of ragtime and New Orleans style music, slowly making its way up the Mississippi River and on to Chicago where the term Jazz was first coined in 1913. “Blueberry hill”, one of the most famous early jazz songs, was composed by one of the most famous jazz music players, Louis Armstrong, nicknamed “Stachmo” and “pops” would be the best example to demonstrate the term “Jazz.” Armstrong was famous for playing trumpet. Blues and Jazz are interrelated most likely because of the fact that they are originated from the American South which means it is an African American style from the south. Improvisation is a major performance method for both Jazz and Blues. Jazz and Blues are different because Jazz is more complicated than blues, uses many more chords, scales, modes, tempos, time signatures, melodic structure, moods and styles.
A more streamline form of jazz that existed in direct opposition to big bands was beginning to take shape. This subgenre, bebop, deconstructed the almost rigid form that swing had imparted on jazz. Bebop favored speed and improvisation over the structure and rhythm that was typical of swing. Bebop often started and ended with a melody and was nearly entirely improvisation in between. These improvisations took front and center as bebop favored few back up instruments.
The Harlem Renaissance was a time period where African American culture flourished, both in the US and around the world. This increased interest in the arts led to the discovery of many new African American writers and poets, including Langston Hughes, Claud McKay, and Zora Neale Hurston. In his collection of works titled The New Negro, the cover of which is on the previous page, helped many promising African American writers gain recognition. Often times, these writers and poets drew on other aspects of the Harlem Renaissance when creating their work. Langston Hughes drew a lot of his inspiration from jazz music and many of his poems, including the passage from one of his poems on the previous page, follow the rhythm of jazz and blues music.
Singers such as Bessie Smith and Billie Holiday popularized blues and jazz vocals. Jelly Roll Morton and Louis Armstrong drew huge audiences as white Americans as well as African Americans caught jazz fever (Kallen 13). The continuing hardships faced by African Americans in the Deep South and the urban North were severe, it took the environment of the new American city to bring in close proximity some of the greatest minds of the day. Harlem brought notice to great works that might otherwise have been lost or never produced. The results were phenomenal; the artists of the Harlem Renaissance undoubtedly transformed African American culture.
Jazz categories include Dixieland, swing, bop, cool jazz, hard bop, free jazz, third stream, jazz-rock, and fusion. Bebop was the first major leap in creating the cultural phenomenon that was jazz. It gained a massive amount of popularity over a short span. Bebop gained popularity in the 1940’s and the reason bebop stayed primarily in African-American culture was that it was too complicated for white musicians to copy. This brought their culture back into the public’s eye.
Ellington was concerned with the people relating his slave descendants and his music. He confessed that he did all the music and performance for dignity. In the film “Love you madly” he displayed his responsibility as a Swing Era bandleader to poetry and use jazz-oriented big band music to push the musician movement after the world war II. Ellington paid tribute to the black artists figures, centers of autonomy and achievements to people such as Liberia and Harlem, amidst the intense criticism that he was not fighting for the black liberation. In the film, he shows his moving against its strictures, where he documented and celebrated black history and culture.
Artist such as Duke Ellington, Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, Bessie Smith, amongst others, were beginning to express attitudes of hope, freedom and solidarity. Although it was primarily an artistic movement, it was also a political social movement. Despite the challenges of race and class, the Harlem Renaissance represented a new social interaction between Blacks and Whites. As a result of the big migration, the image of African Americans changed from rural country bumpkins to one of urban sophistication. African Americans began to generate a sense of pride within themselves, and a discovery of their own identity.
Society was very unjust to not only African American people but to their cultures. One theme evident in most of Hughes poems is rhythmic beats and instruments. In The Cat and the Saxophone there is a certain beat that relates to Jazz culture. Hughes gained his inspiration from this culture which was suppressed at times. As Vogel explains “Hughes tried his best showing African American culture by adding Journal ideas to his poems” (“Closing time: Langston Hughes and the queer poetics of Harlem nightlife.”).
So many new entertainers, musicians, and inventions are becoming such a huge hit. From swinging jazz music to bright lights and the silver screen, this decade will get your shindig pumped up. A new type of music came out, it’s called “jazz music”, there are even different types of jazz just like “cool jazz” and “soul jazz’. This new music brings everyone a new happy atmosphere. Mostly people in black neighborhoods are listening to jazz because it was originated by African music and combined with band instruments and rhythm & blues.
The arrival of the radio and the phonograph records introduced jazz to remote locations. The media provided an opportunity for jazz musicians to make a name for themselves. Radio caused the improvement of old songs, and the popular new songs. Public dance halls, clubs, and tea rooms opened in the cities. There was dance moves that were called black dances because they were inspired by African style dance moves like the shimmy, turkey trot, buzzard lope, chicken scratch, monkey glide, and the bunny
Brubeck was a major influence on the public being one of the most famous jazz musicians of his style. He used his publicity to give the public a view of what could be if the African American community was allowed to integrate with the rest of the American society. Brubeck uses the term color blind to describe jazz meaning that jazz has no racial prejudice. He expresses that jazz musicians working in harmony could wash away the tasted of Little Rock, referring to the Little Rock nine. Brubeck noticed that the incident in Little Rock had received global attention and was trying to remove the image of a racist America from the international eye.
In my opinion, as Jazz become one of the famous type of music, so knowing the history of Jazz is very necessary. Jazz music is very difficult to define mainly because there are so many different styles. When considering Ragtime, Stride and Boogie Woogie, these three styles was very essential in the development of modern jazz. However, the most essential that built Jazz in back then should be Ragtime, so I agree with you. In addition, Ragtime is primarily an African American invention and was a source of pride to African American composers, musicians, and listeners.