He argued that the Reconstruction was a failure because of the long-term conflict and racial violence.1 According to Foner, the emancipation became a matter of black and white society's interpretation. Freedpeople questioned the definition of freedom, that the emancipation was simply an abolition of slavery or was it an inclusion of civil rights and other rights as well. From the African American's view point, freedom meant not only access to educations, but also recognition of their equal rights as a citizen with the possibility of political participation.2 On the other hand, (whites) people rejected the idea of the emancipation as well as formation of corporation by African Americans. Furthermore, legislatures and confederates enforced the "Black Codes" in 1865, which was a law incorporated supports to less freedpeople. (white supremacy) After the "Black Codes" was enforced in 1865 and 1866, share-cropping was a system implemented to help former slaves fight against the "Black Codes".
They are provided insufficient space, freedom and are shown little esteem. Their roles are determined by the whites dominated society. However, some of them strive to break away from stereotypical whites controlled structure of the society. They attempt to assert their personal identity and show that they are equal to whites in numerous respects. Richard Wright and Toni Morrison have portrayed in their novels characters as oppressed which they are suffering from the real injustice in American society.
‘Opposition to AA civil rights remained powerful throughout the period from 1865 – 1992’ – How far do you agree? (25 marks) Opposition to African American civil rights came from a multitude of people and different groups. The KKK had an obvious resentment towards African American’s and they made this clear through their actions. However, opposition also came from the government, in the form of JFK, who always spoke about equality but let the south continue with their violence and violent state of mind. Also, in the amendments that had been made, they promised change but in reality change didn’t always occur, and this was due to the people, who didn’t support African American’s.
(SS) King speaks of the attacks, “...unspeakable horrors of police brutality,” the black community encountered for having a different skin tone. (SS) Since the white community did not see the Blacks as equals, they did not think they were hurting a worthy human being. (com) King also addresses the “... negro’s basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one,” as something the whole black community had to face on a regular basis. (SS) The black community was forced to receive social restraints on their lives, causing severe inequality by taking away the free will to live anywhere they wanted. (SS) This image is a powerful, real life illustration of the extreme segregation of that time.
White Americans’ support for segregation sprang from a widespread belief in black inferiority and that blacks’ disadvantaged status tended to reinforce this sentiment (Harris and Leiberman). Furthermore, African Americans are a good example of a racial group who has been victims of racism from early years till date. Mostly in the United States, African Americans were viewed and considered to be the minority and were not equally treated among the people of America. This segregation created affects their way of life and makes it difficult for them to reach their life goals. They are forced to adjust their way of doing things usually and have to suffer with the consequences of being the minority.
Now in real life, people who believe idea of racism by skin color are less than before. However, some people still have that idea in their mind. In this novel, not everyone but some people have racist idea and they thought black people are bad. Some characters are disagreeing to take the case of Tom Robinson, because Tom is Negro man. However, Atticus has responsibility to take care and defend Tom Robinson as a lawyer.
They remained confused between two different cultures. On the one hand they tried to adjust in their new settlement and on the other hand they felt a craving for their roots. This rootlessness can be seen in the writings of present generation of black British writers. As a son of immigrants, Phillips also encountered many identity problems. Diasporic identity has critically influenced his life and writing.
Humans have a tendency to get defensive of their actions, and resort to denial or ignorance when feeling attacked, which is why Baldwin begins his book with a letter to his nephew. The entirely of The Fire Next Time addresses the highly problematic racial inequality in that is still deeply ingrained the American culture and motivates the actions of its citizens. Despite the book's overarching message of the dire need for love and union between the black and white race, a level of resentment and anger is prevalent in Baldwin's narrative. The underlying message addresses the white readers, arguing that their privilege continues to undermine the black communities and that their practice of ignorance continues to perpetuate the problem. He holds
This was the birth of the movement titled Black Lives Matter. Many other factors besides Trayvon’s misfortune ultimately led to the movement, black people in the United States of America have always felt segregated by their government and unfortunately, the USA isn’t the only country
He suggests that black people have been misunderstood and misjudged throughout history. In extreme cases, black people can be perceived as being unpatriotic and disloyal to America. Dyson believes that many Americans lack the understanding of how much black people truly love and support their country. He believes that this can happen because people confuse nationalism with patriotism. These terms are very diverse and shouldn 't be used interchangeably.