‘Agricultural pollution’ is an umbrella term used to describe the sources of wastes, emissions, and discharges arising from farming activities, and includes, but is not limited to: livestock and livestock manure, poultry litter, chemical fertilizers, chemical pesticides, sediment, agro-chemicals, organic containments, heavy metals, and general farm procedures. This form of pollution greatly affects bodies of water across the globe. According to 2015 estimates from the Bay Program, “agriculture contributes 42 percent of the nitrogen, 55 percent of the phosphorus and 60 percent of the sediment entering the Bay,” making it the largest source of sediment and nutrient pollution in the Chesapeake Bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the two most common
Although the use of farmland for aquaculture is not allowed everywhere, possibilities may exist with the combined use of agriculture and aquaculture through rice cultivation during the rainy months and shrimp cultivation during the rest of the year, as is done in Kerala and West Bengal. Moreover, in line with the Indian priorities, existing swamps and derelict waters offer a huge potential for the production of catfish. Marine
India offers a huge potential for aquaculture development. The country has a coastline of 7,517 km and an extensive river and canal system of about 195.210 km, consisting of 14 major rivers, 44 medium rivers and numerous small rivers and streams. In addition, pond and tank resources are estimated at 2.36 million ha.1 India experienced an eleven fold increase of fish production in the past six decades. This growth continues as is demonstrated by figure 1. In the freshwater, brackish water and the marine aquaculture sector there exist challenges and opportunities to which Dutch companies can respond.
J. H. MacKay. Majority of the archaeological findings were held by Pakistan where the Indus Valley Civilization developed. The early Harappan, mature Harappan, and late Harappan timelines were known as the Regionalisation, Integration and Localisation eras, respectively. The Indus Valley Civilization surrounded most of Pakistan, ranging from Balochistan to Sindh and extending Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab, up to Rupar on Upper Sutlej. These geographical conditions of the Indus Valley were highly similar to those situations in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert and ocean.
We avoid here discussion of the technical aspects of the stock assessment exercises carried out by various agencies but present the estimates of fish-stocks prepared for Gujarat that were officially accepted by the state. In case of aqua-culture, scope exists for bringing more fish species with a focus on food fish, ornamental species and those with potentials for sport and tourism. Growing demand for domestic fresh water fish. Fish produstion can be enhanced in rain fed water bodies by 2 to 4 times. Domestic demand for the fish and processed fish is increasing very rapidly.
Aquaculture takes place in inland, marine and coastal settings using a variety of methods, including raceways, cages, ponds, tanks, ropes, rafts and racks. Aquaculture has a major advantage over the decreasing capture fisheries as the time of harvest can be synchronized to coincide with market demand (FAO, 2008). Aquaculture is one arm of agriculture that can thrive in any ecological area of Nigeria. According to the Nigerian Fifth National Biodiversity Report, 2015, there are five priority ecological areas of Nigeria which are arid, Guinea savannah woodlands, coastal and marine ecosystem, rainforest belt including montaine forest and wetlands and river basins. As long as water (whether brackish or fresh) which creates the enabling environment for aquaculture industry to thrive is available or provided, aquaculture will do well in any part of Nigeria.
The big issue related with the watershed, wetland and wildlife habitats are illegal logging activity, forest distinction and change with opening the large scale of palm oil and rubber tree farm, cut down of mangrove for developing material and wetland has been drain to make sure the location suitable for development including building construction. Below is the following roles of Land Use Planning to prepare the best location for next
Introduction Wetlands are areas of marsh, peatlands, fen or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is standing or flowing, fresh, brackish or saline, including areas of marine water, the depth at which at low tide does not exceed six meters (Ramsar, 1971).They cover 6% of the world’s land surface (Ferrati et.al, 2005), 2% are lakes, 30% bogs, 26% fens, 20% swamps and 15% floodplains (Bergkamp & Orlando, 1999). Wetlands are composed of physical, biological, and chemical components such as water, soil, plants and animals. Wetlands exist in the transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. They are temporarily, seasonally and permanently inundated, with hydric soils. The plants and animals
Recharge by runoff from irrigation water into groundwater as well as leaching of agrochemicals cause serious groundwater contamination problems. The clearing of natural vegetation and ploughing up of virgin land for new cultivation also affect the groundwater quality. Irrigation is one of the major sources of salinity in the soil through which rainwater flows to the water table. The dissolution of these salts finally
The Indus River Basin is ‘one of the most important water systems in Asia’. The main Indus River runs for 3,200 kms across northern India and Jammu and Kashmir and the length of Pakistan before falling into the Arabian Sea. Pakistan draws