Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19). According to her, gender identity is a signifier for human beings; it can be used in the process of forming individuals’ identity. Thus, it becomes a demand to study gender identity. Gender identity is a personal inner sense of self as a male or female. Psychological theory of gender identity reveals a new postmodern problematic issue related to gender identity: gender identity as a personal feeling, can be changed, transformed and masqueraded.
For example, it is said that feminism was used to refer to a historically specific political movement in the United States; nowadays it has received a different meaning. On one hand, Emma Watson (UN Women Goodwill Ambassador) stated that the term feminism is: “The belief that men and women should have equal rights. It is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes,” but on the other hand we have another point of view on the definition of feminism and what it means by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichi. This woman claims that feminism or feminists is: “A man or woman who says, ‘Ýes, there is a problem with gender as it is today, and we must fix it, we must do better.’” These are two different point of views that share the same idea and main theme, they support that there are injustices against
This has caused the invisibility of women, which has become an indicator of inequality. The issue of gender, that is socially learned behaviours owing to masculinity and femineity, has been one of the main ideals that feminism has owed the oppression, inequality and subordination
Judith Butler is an American philosopher and feminist who in her book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity, explore the idea whether we are assigned our gender or do we perform it based on what values we have learnt. She seeks to radically reconceptualize, challenge and help alter our ideas on how we understand gender and sex. She starts off by saying that existing feminist movement are limited in how they define gender. She says that this definition is outdated but still reflected by the world’s treatment of gender as a set of binary categories, this means that when we are born we are distinctively placed into one of the two categories i.e. male of female and these categories define how we behave.
She has focused on the dual burdens carried out by the postcolonial female subjects; both patriarchal and imperial. Reina Lewis has observed that gender is used as metaphor for negative characterization of the orientalized others as “feminist” […]. (1996: 18). The power of colonial discourse may be assumed from how it positions women. The veil, (hijab) is the symbol of oppression and romantic simultaneously of the orient contrasted to the supposed freedom of western sexuality.
Chauvinism and Feminism in Handmaid’s tale Introduction This paper explores the relations between patriarchy and class in the context of a dystopian society which is very well depicted by Attwood. In this sense, how patriarchy is used against women. Debates appeared when society acquired language and now a days is still a hot debate. Radical, feminists point men as the 'main enemy’ and they say that, patriarchy is considered as a form of domination imposed by men on women. Feminists are dealing with how to understand the relations between patriarchy and how to confront, oppose male chauvinism in the ruling class.
There has been plentiful controversy regarding the true definition of feminism. Some may correlate the word feminist with the notion of anti-male or simply put, man-hating. Others may view the feminist movement as an attempt for females to dominate. Unfortunately, few truly recognize the pure intention of the feminist movement to establish equality between the two sexes. Feminism is defined as “a multi-disciplinary approach to sex and gender equality understood through social theories and political activism.” Over time, it has gradually evolved from “… the critical examination of inequality between the sexes to a more nuanced focus on the social and performative constructions of gender and sexuality” ("What Is Feminism?," n.d.).
Hence, Herein lays the close connection between feminism and postmodernism. Thus, Postmodernism indicates the wide horizon opening up for exploration from feminist perspective. A perusal of this is bound to open up new vistas of appreciation and understanding. In Addition to, women writers assert that a Feminist theory should be explicitly historical, attuned to the cultural specificity of different societies and periods and to different groups within societies and periods. They wish to analyse the workings of patriarchy in all its manifestations, desire to think in terms of pluralities and diversities rather than unities and universals and articulate ways of thinking about gender without simply reversing the old hierarchies or confirming them.
(121) Critical attention was given to the books by male writers in which influential or typical images of women were constructed. In the 1980s, firstly, feminist criticism became much more electric. Secondly, it switched its focus from attacking male versions of the world to exploring the nature of the female world and outlook, and reconstructing the lost and suppressed records of female experience. Thirdly, attention was switched to the need to construct a new canon of women’s writing by rewriting the history of the novel and of poetry in such a way that neglected women writers were given new prominence. When we explore feminism of gender-rights from the perspective of Begum Rokeya, we find that she deals with the basic issues of women in a different way than most other feminists.
To understand the feminist approach in International Relations, it is important to have a fundamental understanding of feminism as a theory. “Feminism can be simply defined as the study of and movement for women not as subjects but as subjects of knowledge.” (Shukla) The primary motive of the critique was to question the fundamental biases of IR as a discipline and explain the multitude of ways in which women was denied their roles in Global politics, state, International economy and political security. O’Callaghan, in his theory on feminist empiricism, states and clearly explains the role of women as wives, mothers and so on in creating a stable military community. (Abdo, 2002) Feminist theory