History Of Green Marketing

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The term green is given to those products and processes that are biodegradable, save energy and resources or are manufactured & disposed using environmental friendly techniques.
Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and/or services based on their environmental benefits. Such a product or service may be environmentally friendly in it or produced and/or packaged in an environmentally friendly way.

In today’s scenario, both consumers and the companies prefer green products. There is growing interest among the consumers all over the world regarding protection of environment.
In certain cases, the more environmental friendly product influences the purchase decision of the customers, who look
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There are basically three stages in which it has evolved.
1. The decade of the late 1980s marked the first stage of green marketing, when the concept of “green marketing” was newly introduced and discussed in industry (Peattie and Crane, 2005).
Owing to the upsurge of this new concept many marketer tried to involve in green marketing in order to generate positive consumer response which would be converted into goodwill, market share and sales. However in spite of reports stating that the environmental problems constituted one of the uppermost public concerns, market growth of these products fell short of expectations.
2. The second stage started off as a consumer backlash. Many organizations “green washed” the consumers. In order to improve their sales, thus creating cynical attitude of the consumers towards the green concept.
Some of the marketing practices which lead to the failure of green marketing during this period are (Peattie and Crane 2005):
a. Green spinning -> Taking a reactive stance of “green”, if accused of malpractice
b. Green Selling -> taking an opportunistic approach by adding some green claims to existing products with an intention to boosts
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Entrepreneur marketing -> Developing innovative green products without actually considering consumer needs.
e. Compliance marketing -> Just following the environmental standards as an opportunity to promote the company’s green credentials rather than actually being involved
3. The evolution of the third stage is just a response to the anomalies occurring in the second stage.
With the implementation of advanced technology, stricter state enforcement on deceptive claims, govt. regulations and incentives and closer scrutiny from various environmental organizations and media many green products have regained confidence in the 2000’s (Gurau and Ranchhod, 2005; Ottoman, 2007). With green and sustainable development as the theme of 21st century development, two trends have been predicted as inevitable in the near future of green marketing. They are:
a) First the concept of an eco-friendly approach of doing business will be pushed into mainstream (Hanas 2007)
b) Second, corporations from developed countries will initiate international green marketing in order to expand their market, increase their sales and take advantage of the positive image of their green brands established in their domestic markets (Gura˘u and Ranchhod, 2005; Johri and Sahasakmontri, 1998; Pugh and Fletcher,
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