Discuss the ways in which Rosario Castellanos challenges and subverts gender stereotypes in her work?
Patriarchy presents the roles of men and women in a distinct form. Men are expected to be the dominant leader, strong, protector and sole provider where as women are subverted to the role of domestic duties, raring of children and fulfilling her man’s every desire without question or comment. In Lynn Nottage’s play Poof!, she brilliantly portrays the roles of men and women, and experiments with the concept of changing gender roles that are characteristic of our society. Overtime, the patriarchal system has been challenged and the defined gender roles are in the process of being eradicated. By presenting the plays protagonist Loureen, as an abuse victim that finds her voice and stands up against her battery, Lynn brilliantly illustrates that
Gender roles can be defined as the behavior learned by a person as appropriate to their gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms. Gender roles still influence modern thoughts even after the woman’s rights movement and still appear and impact daily life. There are numerous sides to gender roles, including; men's and women's stereotypes and norms, the pros and cons, and how it can be fixed. As Ostrovsky stated in her article, “we have evolved. But our ideas of gender have not evolved very much,”. In literature as in life, the theme of gender roles exists.
"Yellow Woman and a Beauty of a Spirit" by Leslie Marmon Silko addressed multiple societal views, individuality, and sexuality in a powerful and persuasive manner. Silko effectively structures her narrative by using a plethora of techniques such as reflection, comparison, and narration. In her exposition, Silko sets up multiple points and ideas while conveniently clarifying the ways of life of the Laguna Pueblo people through reflections and flashbacks.
Maxine Hong Kingston's use of talk stories in The Woman Warrior emphasizes that individuals will find a more fulfilling life if they defy the traditional gender norms place on them by society. While contemplating beauty standards in Chinese society in “No Name Woman” Maxine Kingston thinks, “Sister used to sit on their beds and cry together… as their mothers or their slaves removed the bandages for a few minutes each night and let the blood gush back into their veins” (9). From a young age girls are expected to be binding their feet and are told that it is to look beautiful, but in reality that is not why. When a womans feet are bound they are restrained and silenced. These girls could be free and happy but they are restrained by men through this binding. Kingston reveals another example of how defying gender roles can lead to a better life in her story “Shaman.” As her mom is
Staged in London this year, a new version of Calderon De La Barca 's play Life is a Dream, retells it from the point of view of its main female character. The website for Rosaura proclaims her as "one of the strongest characters in the history of theatre", (REF), giving the impression that Calderon, despite his strong absolutist and catholic views, believed in some equality of the sexes. After all, in the original play, when Rosaura bursts onto the stage, dressed like a man, swearing and climbing down a mountain side, she is signalling to the audience that this is a female character breaking down all the restrictions placed on her gender in 17th Century Spain. Conversely, by the play 's end, this feisty female is submitting meekly to marriage,
A man walks across this empty space whilst someone else is watching him, and this is all that is needed for an act of theatre to be engaged” (Brook, Peter). Peter Brook is a European theatre director who studied at Oxford and is recognized for directing Shakespearean productions. He believes that in order for a theatre production to be successful one has to step out of the orthodox and repetitiveness. Consequently, there are four types of theatre, Holy theatre, Rough theatre, Immediate theatre and Deadly theatre. Unfortunately, as stated by Peter Brook, Deadly theatre is recognized as the most common and seen type of theatre, also known as “bad theatre”. This means is that this type of theatre is identified from performances perpetuated to be dull, boring, traditional, consumeristic and conventional. Hence, as Brook states, one of the reasons why this type of theatre still remains is due to the deadly spectators who enjoy watching a performance with lack of intensity and entertainment. Likewise, other individuals have the tendency to associate culture and tradition with historical costumes and the sensation of being bored. Therefore, the right amount of boringness can create the illusion that the play was worthwhile to see (Brook,
Feminist theatre came into being as a by product of the experimental theatre movement of the 1970s’ and 1980’. It was an alternate theatre which enabled women to explore their creative talents on stage independently. Feminist theatre served as a means of constructing an exclusive feminist discourse on stage that questioned the patriarchal norms of female subjugation. Its movement was towards the construction of a theatre space where women are no longer mere stage props. They started functioning as the creators of drama rather than being confined to the roles of wife, lover, mother or lunatic. It was a paradigm shift from women being the objects of male gaze to the creation of a self sufficient female gaze, from being objects to being the subject
In this work, the author does a magnificent job of representing his culture which allows readers to gain new knowledge regarding a culture they were not exposed to before. When I read Bashō’s work, I became fascinated by the concept of impermanence and the Japanese culture’s focus on it. Today, many people are too focused on the past or the future instead of realizing that time will always go on and bring new experiences. Also, individuals should educate themselves when it comes to cultures that aren’t their own and literature has the power give readers that understanding. Bashō’s work of art will continue to offer a beautiful representation of the Japanese culture that enthralls readers
“Pygmalion was written to challenge the class system, traditional stereotypes and the audience’s own views.”
Hollywood films have influenced our values and beliefs of socio-cultural groups within a film. In the context of race and gender the films Cowboys and Aliens (2011) and the searchers (1956) both share similarities. These two successful films are 55 years apart the both convey the perspectives of race and gender through the reflection of American Indians in these films. The films The Searchers and Cowboys and Aliens show that Hollywood has changed the way we see the status of Indians. In the earlier film the Indians are represented as killers and mongrels as in this current day and age we have grown to accept them and appreciate their culture. This is done prominently through both films as they feature the interaction between white Americans and Indians. The searchers depict the Indians as the villains who capture the girls from the white American families and are seen as a risk to the community. In the
Mambo Girl (1957), a movie musical, follows Kailing, a talented young woman widely admired for her singing and dancing capabilities, as she searches for acceptance after learning the truth about her background. Shall We Dansu? (1996) follows Mr. Sugiyama, a Japanese accountant who goes on a secretive and intimate journey into the world of ballroom dance. Both Mambo Girl and Shall We Dansu? emphasize the close relationship between intimacy and Latin dance by linking Kailing and Mr. Sugiyama’s manners of dancing Latin to the emotional connection each has with other characters. For Kailing, the presence and absence of physical contact with others while dancing signals the degree of intimacy she has with those around her, whereas, for Mr. Sugiyama,
The play, “In the chest of a woman”, written, directed and published in 2008 by the Ghanaian playwright, Efo Kojo Mawugbe, told the story of a female character who deviated from society’s constructed norms. The protagonist, Nana Yaa Kyeretwie, came to the forefront to challenge society’s notion that men should lead while women follow. This was evident as Nana Yaa exhibited macho characteristics. The hilarity of the text coupled with the feisty and cunning nature of Nana Yaa made the text stand out as my favourite. This paper seeks to offer an intrinsic analysis of the play, illustrating a society that promotes sexism, sexist exploitation and depression. The paper will use the feminist literary theory adopting key concepts: patriarchy, heteronormativity and queer theory in highlighting these instances.
The year 1660 marked an important juncture in the English theatre. Not only was monarchy restored in England but Charles II also allowed women to enter the stage. Thus, women replaced the young adolescent males who cross-dressed in order to portray the women characters in Shakespeare’s plays. Although, the cross-dressing motif might seem strange to some, this practice can be traced back to Ancient Greeks who did not allow women to enter the stage and therefore, men had to wear costumes and masks to represent women. Shakespearean critics, on the other hand, have been divided over the use of ‘cross-dressing’ in his plays. Questions like does Shakespeare use
In some ways Japan looks like other western countries, also when it comes to their working style. If one looks at the official working hours for an office man, it is set for eight hours a day, and if one needs to work overtime, the company will pay for it. This sounds familiar with the working standards in the west, but unlike it, these hours mainly apply to women, because they leave the office at 6 pm, where the buildings close for air-conditioning and heating. The fact remains that the men stay and work a lot more, and later in the evening they finally go home, resulting that the trains can be more crowded around midnight than during the rush hour, since it is seen as dishonorable to leave the office before the boss goes home (Murphy, 2014).