The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
2. The Advantages of Treffinger Learning Model The advantages of applying Treffinger learning model according to Huda (2013: p. 320) are as follows: a. Make the students more active in learning and have confidence to speak their ideas. b. Develop students' thinking skills because it presented a problem in the early learning and provide flexibility to students to find their own solutions.
Kolb & Kolb (2008) defined Experiential learning theory as the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience, Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience. According to Kolb’s ELT model, grasping experience portrays two dialectically related modes of grasping such as Concrete Experience (CE) and Abstract Conceptualization (AC). On the other hand transforming experience portrays Reflective Observation (RO) and Active Experimentation (AE). According to the four-stage learning cycle depicted in Figure below, immediate or concrete experiences are the basis for observations and reflections. These reflections are assimilated and distilled into abstract concepts from which new implications
An individual models his or her own behavior on the behaviors of others. This is based on observational learning that requires attention, retention, production, and motivation. Attention is to selectively observe the actions of a model. Attention is influenced by characteristics of the modeled behavior (e.g., complexity), the model (e.g., attractiveness similarity), and the observer (e.g., cognitive capabilities). Retention then stores observed behaviors in memory, to reproduce later.
The construct of procrastination has been investigated in terms of task approach and performance or through the perspective of personality and individual differences. Recent articles have addressed the role of the three-factor theory of personality in procrastination. However, little information is known regarding the five-factor model of personality and procrastination. The present investigation involves a comprehensive evaluation of this relationship. Undergraduate students (N = 202) completed the NEO-PI-R and Aitken's Procrastination Inventory.
In their works, both Freire and Edmundson describe what they see as learning influences within educational standards and concepts today. One makes the determination that it is communicative approaches “Education thus becomes an act of depositing, which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the
Learning strategies represent the behavior and thoughts, which occupies a student during learning. Learning strategies are the techniques used by students to test the new material to develop, organize and / or to understand and influence self-motivation and feelings. The use of mnemonic devices can be seen as one type of learning strategy. Learning strategies can be divided into several categories as under: - 1. Rehearsal strategies (For example, repeat items in a list, highlight the text of an article) Uses repeated practice to learn information.
To improve learning in higher education, the primary focus should be on engaging students in a process that best enhances their learning – a process that contains feedback on the effectiveness of their learning efforts. Education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience, the process and goal of education are one and the same thing. Dewey (1897) all learning is re-learning. Learning is best facilitated by a process that draws out the students’ beliefs and ideas about a topic so that they can be examined, tested and integrated with new, more refined ideas. Learning needs the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world.
According to this model, metacognition entails two mental levels: the object level and a meta-level. There is a hierarchical flow of information, with meta level acquiring information from the object level and sending information to, and thereby altering the object level. These two processes correspond to “monitoring” and “controlling” (of cognitive processes) respectively. In the case of metamemory, the object level involves the memory itself and the meta-level involves the monitoring of those memories, as in reflecting upon those memories or the ongoing learning. Figure I shows the interactive model of metacognition with the meta level monitoring as well as controlling the object