Poverty is most severe and most widespread in these areas and almost 80 percent of the country’s poor people live there. Agriculture is the primary and often only source of income for poor rural people, most of whom depend on subsistence farming and fishing for their livelihoods. In general, illiteracy, unemployment and the incidence of poverty are higher among indigenous peoples and people living in the upland areas. Overall, more than a third of the people in the Philippines live in poverty. The poorest of the poor are the indigenous peoples, small-scale farmers who cultivate land received through agrarian reform, landless workers, fishers, people in upland areas and women.
According to the the survey report of Gulathi Istitute of Finance and Taxation, there are over 40 lakh domestic migrant labourers in Kerala from other states of India, as well as from Bangladesh and Nepal. In-migrant construction workers are risk of developing certain health disorders and sickness than workers in many industries. The work is hard physical labour often under difficult conditions like adverse weather conditions and the nature of work, low pay and poor living conditions with lack of basic amenities and separation from family. Lack of job security and lack of access to occupational health service make the situations worse. Migration has been largely associated with the exploitation of the migrant workers specially the poor, illiterate, unskilled categories.
Human civilization evolved over a period of time. People’s life, behaviour and adoption have been changed from gathering and hunting to urbanization stage. In the beginning, people were depending on gathering and hunting then they reached the stage of cultivation of crops and this way agriculture began. At that time people did agriculture from bare hands, later on, plough developed. At that time, agriculture production is low because of lack of agricultural knowledge and technological inputs were also low which bind the whole family to work in agriculture fields.
The agriculture sector in Ethiopia plays pivotal roles in economic growth, poverty alleviation, employment creation, foreign exchange earnings and food security. Despite the enormous contribution over the past years, its significance is limited because of various factors and hence it is becoming increasingly difficult to meet the food requirements of the growing population (Jon, 2007; Abera, 2011; UNDP, 2013). One of the significant contributors for its deprived performance is the low productivity of the sector in general and cereal production in particular over the past years (Alemayehu, 2009; Alemayehu et al. 2012). Such low productivity leads to increasing poverty and food insecurity of rural poor farm households in the country.
All the poor countries are facing serious effects of poverty which need to be solved. The effects of poverty can be mainly categorized as unemployment, illiteracy, food security, psychological well-being, increased crime rate, child health, homelessness etc. All these effects of poverty are correlated with each other as one effects acts as a precursor for other. Major effect of poverty is unemployment to those without land or dependable wage labor. Poor people can rarely find permanent, salaried job in the village or even in the city.
The study of chronic poverty in Indian context has attracted major attention in recent times. India is country housing major proportion of rural households, who are vulnerable and susceptible to poverty. There exists rich literature on the rural poverty and its causes within the Indian context. However, delving deeper in, chronic poverty and its relationship with migration has received much attention only in the recent times. Chronic Poverty is a state of extreme poverty which makes it impossible for people to escape, given their lack of resources and assets.
If we fail to do farming in our land, people speak badly about us; hence, many farmers do agriculture to endure their cachet in their society.” He fraught, “In Kattupalayam, Nellore and many places in Tamilnadu where agriculture is primary in past days have already extinct due to famine of farmers.” Mostly the families working in agriculture field in villages are found to be not educated as their desire and generation occupation is to do agriculture, they are mostly not aware of the schemes that are provided to them. Even if they are aware, they are not getting it. If this continues, slowly the farmers who depend only on farming might fall to below poverty line which automatically pushes them not to depend on agriculture which might improve the deduction of agriculture land. This instantly increases the price of food
The number one reason is rooted in the social economics of Kerala tribes. Most of the Kerala tribes are agriculturalists, and shifting cultivation has been eliminated in Kerala; therefore agriculture takes a lot of work that needs many hands. In order for a tribal family to have a successful crop, it is necessary for the adult members of the family to receive help in the upkeep of the farms or with the caretaker of the home.
Agribusiness is characterized by raw materials that are mostly perishable, variable in quality and not regularly available (FAO, 2014). Consequently one should analyse and take into consideration the agricultural sector as the backbone of agriculture that is turned into trade and business. This agribusiness sector is thus highlighted by an important proportion of small holder farmers such as dairy business farmers whom need help to
INDIAN AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY PROBLEM :- Our country India faces many problems regarding agriculture, some of them are major and other are minor and they all are discussed below: Small and fragmented land-holdings: In our Indian culture whatever property the father belong is to be to distribute among their sons equally. It may be at the time of existence or may be after his death. The pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land equally among the heirs has caused excessive sub divisions of farm holdings. Consequently, the holdings get smaller and fragmented. The small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to social tension, violence among them and discontentment.