The oil palm is native to West Africa where the main palm belt sprinted from Sierra Leone, Liberia, the Ivory Coast, Ghana and Cameroon to the equatorial regions of the Republics of Congo and Zaire (Corley and Tinker, 2003). It played the important role at the village scale for many centuries (Hardon et al. 1985). The species name of the oil palm, guineensis, refers to the discovery of the in the Gulf of Guinea area (Jacquemard, 1998). The genus also contains Elaeis oleifera (H.B.K), known as American oil palm and common wild species in Colombia, Panama and Costa Rica.
Peanuts are generally low in carbohydrate content which is about 21.6g/100% edible portion. These carbohydrates include sugars, starch, crude fiber and pentosans. Peanuts are a reasonable source of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, however they are poor source of fat soluble vitamins like A, D and K. Peanut oil is an excellent source of mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids exceeding the levels of these fatty acids in soybean and corn oil but significantly lower than in sunflower and safflower oil. The oil content of peanut is between 35% and 54.2% of the seed. According to Canola
Any starch will do but preferably from cassava. Cassava starch is preferred because cassava tuber and chips are very cheap, the tubers are as good as starch due to high starch content, cassava is easily available to the low income societies, and that the societies still consider cassava as a poor man’s food only lying idle in farms waiting to be used just in case there is drought and food shortage. (Zeier, 1987) Corn starch (maize starch), wheat starch, maize flour, wheat flour and potatoes starch can also be used. These are foods and it can be difficult to make sense to a poor man that what he may consider as a delicacy should be used by him to make charcoal briquettes. (Huang, 2014) Another good binder is gum Arabic or acacia gum which is harvested from acacia tree.
Bambara groundnut is an underutilised crop predominantly grown in African countries [19,20] and is mainly cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa's warm tropics . Bambara groundnut is very nutritious, having 65% carbohydrate content and 18% protein . The need for locally sourced raw material for pharmaceutical manufacturing is critical as it lowers manufacturing costs, creates jobs in multiple areas like planting, harvesting, and crop storage . A previous study  investigated the heat stability and pasting properties of the native and modified starches, however the objective of the present study was to investigate the compression, mechanical and release properties of thermal and chemically modified starches from Bambara nut in Ibuprofen tablet formulations as directly compressible and sustained release excipients. Ibuprofen was chosen as the model drug for this study because of it known poor compaction properties , in order to assess the influence of the starch-based excipients on the formed tablets.
Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) is an ancient crop native to Mexico, the South-western United States and parts of Central America (Bhardwaj, 2013). Recent studies indicate that tepary bean was most likely domesticated near the Mexico-USA border with earliest remains found in Tehuacán Valley, Mexico (Blair et al., 2012). The crop has been reported as still being found growing in the wild as far south as Guatemala and as far north as central Arizona (Muñoz et al., 2004). The crop has recently gained recognition as a drought tolerant and short duration legume in semi-arid parts of tropical Africa where most other grain legumes fail (Porch et al., 2013). Tepary bean is grown in Morocco, Algeria, Malawi, Botswana, Uganda, South Africa as well as Swaziland and Lesotho.
Sorghum bicolor L. is an important crop due to its wide use as food, feed and energy crop. In addition, Sorghum appears promising as a cereal crop, which has some non-food uses, particularly for bioethanol production (Epelde et al., 2009). It comes originally from North Africa, and therefore, is resistant to heat and drought. It is unique due to specific compounds (phytates, tannins), which affect its nutritional value. Increased concentration of essential elements in agricultural soils means higher plant uptake.
Summary Teff, a small grain, with origins in Ethiopia, is the main ingredient for injera and the staple food representing majority of the diet for the people in Ethiopia. Furthermore, teff is the most grown cereal, accounting for more than half the country’s grain production. For centuries, the Ethiopian communities have depended on cultivating teff grain, and eventually could not meet demand of the people who rely on the grain. With hopes of enhancing their teff genetic resources and benefit thereof, Ethiopia kindly welcomed the support from a Dutch company in 1997. First off, breeding of teff began in Ethiopia in the 1950’s in order to increase yields and improve current varieties.
2.2. Maize Production and its importance in the Ghana economy The most cultivated crop in Ghana is maize. Maize is cultivated throughout the country. Since the introduction of maize in Ghana in around the 16th century, it is now the most widely consumed staple crop in the country (Addai, 2011). It is gown in all the regions in Ghana with the transition zone experiencing two harvesting season, thus the major season and the minor season.
Figure 4. Complete Sunflower Value Chain 2.1.2 Challenges in Sunflower Value Chain in Tanzania According to Beerlandt et al (2013), Sunflower is the main cash crop for small households in Kongwa District and plays a major role in household food security, enabling households to buy food with the income they receive from sales of sunflower seeds and oil. However, the local markets and few small farmer producer or marketing groups for sunflower oil and seeds are considerable. Tanzania Sunflower value chain is characterized by a booming number of medium to small processors for first pressing of sunflower seeds and for oil cake. The efficiency of most of these processors is suboptimal; they usually do not use their machine(s) at full capacity or year round (Beerlandt et al, 2013).
The leafy part, which includes the most nutrition, is often used as veg soup. What 's Moringa? Moringa is named the Miracle flower due to its health advantages. Moringa, gram for gram, has four times the Supplement A in carrots, twenty-five times the flat iron in spinach, and fifteen times the potassium in bananas. Studies also show that Moringa leaves can treat at least 300 diseases and are which can have no area results since it is organic and natural.