A pidgin becomes a creole when it is learned as a first language by a new generation. The creole takes on all the functions needed by the speech community and is, in most cases, not limited to certain functions. Some creoles go through the above-described standardization process and go on to become the official language. A good example is the Afrikaans language that comprises of a Dutch superstrate and English and Bantu
Malay Malaysian English carries the dialectal influence on the use of English language. This dialects influence on English language among Malay speakers has resulted to the development of Kelantanese English, Kedahan English, Perakian English. Malay Malaysian English acts as an intra-state communication tool of English. For example, “gostan” which means to reverse is apparently derived from a nautical term “go astern” that is commonly used in Terengganu and Kelantan. Besides, Malay Malaysian English with dialectal influence also features the nativised intonation, speech rhythm and pronunciations.
In addition, Universal Grammar includes stable principles, they are generally true across different languages, as well as parameters which allow the variation and differences between languages. Lydia White states that "Grammar of Children and adults conform to the principles and parameters of Universal Grammar. "(2) A child does acquire linguistics competence in their first language. The characteristics of the language are represented mentally by means of an unconscious. As Chomsky (1980: 48) internalized linguistic grammar system is "a certain mental structure consisting of a system of rules and principles that generate and relate mental representation of various types."
Chomsky proposes that children should be exposed to the complexities of grammar at an early age to enable them to procure linguistic competence (Shaffer, 2011). Aspect of Lifespan Development (Module Focus)- Cognitive and Language Development • Universal Grammar (UG) • Language Acquisition Device (LAD) • Surface Structure • Deep Structure (Schaffer, 2011) Process (Expansion of Theory Components)- While Chomsky, suggests that some grammar concepts are innate, he advocates that children be allowed to use this knowledge to further develop through experience. Chomsky’s UG theory is that all grammar, regardless of language, shares certain attributes such as past, present and future tenses and noun and verb use. By engaging in conversation with adults, the children can understand patterns and guidelines for correct grammar use. This concept is Chomsky’s LAD, “whereby children set about constructing the grammar of their native language from the speech they hear” (Shaffer, 2011).
The research methodology used is Ethnography of Communication. This methodology “combines ethnography – the description and analysis of culture – with linguistics – the description and analysis of language” (Smart 2014, p. 151). As Pidgin English is a very unique way of communicating, this methodology allows for an in-depth analysis of the culture of Nigerians as well as the linguistic community of the Nigerian students in Pearson Institute of Higher Education (PI). Nigeria has vast cultural identities with many languages as well as dialects. Using Pidgin English is the one way that many Nigerians who speak different languages are able to communicate effectively with one another.
Nigerian Pidgin is known to be an English- based pidgin spoken across Nigeria. Nigerian Pidgin (NP) has been also influenced by some other languages, namely Portuguese, French and Igbo. Nowadays Nigerian Pidgin English as well as Tok Pisin can be considered not only pidgin languages but also creoles since they begin to acquire native speakers. NP word-formation is mainly represented by compounding, conversion, clipping and blending. The following examples taken from the work of Amao describing NP compounds seen in such words as God pikin ‘Christian’, pure water ‘cheap/mass produced goods’.
Almost all the Singaporeans are bilingual due to the bilingual policies that the government has implemented. Through the policies, Singapore had been transformed into an English knowing society. It was emphasized that besides being the bridging language among the different races in Singapore, English is also significant to the nation building process and the economic development. However, what about our Mother Tongue? Why do we need to learn our Mother Tongue and how will it be beneficial to us?
When analyzing the status of translation as a tool for foreign language learning it is important to review the status of the first language itself throughout different teaching methodologies. The first prominent language teaching method was the Grammar-Translation Method. In it, translation was obviously encouraged, so the use of the first language in the classroom was not only desirable but necessary. In fact, translation exercises were prescribed to practice the grammar rules presented in class and the first language was also present in activities such as bilingual word lists, bilingual dictionary study and comparison of the two languages’ grammar rules. As Stern (1983, p. 455) put it, “the first language is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of the second language”.
Almost all the Singaporeans are bilingual due to the bilingual policies that the government has implemented. Through the policies Singapore had been transformed into an English knowing society. It was emphasized that besides being the bridging language among the different races in Singapore, English is also significant to the nation building process and the economic development. However, what about our mother tongue? Why do we need to learn our mother tongue and how will it beneficial to us?
Despite varied views, grammar being an inevitable part of English language has to be given due preference because; it is a second language, grammar has link with writings, it hones communication skills, certain time is allotted for teaching of grammar, good grammar makes a better speaker, and it enables the speaker to answer “why” and “how”. To begin with, there is a wide gap with regards to the ease and pace at which English is learnt between the native learners and the L2 (2nd Language learners). According to the Rational Theory of Language Acquisition by Noam Chomsky, when a child is born, the seed of the language called LAD-Language Acquisition Device is already embedded in the brain of a child, so that one can learn on one’s own. Joanne Yatvin, in one of her visits to a grade 5 classroom, in her school noticed a group of girls reading out their first draft essays. One of