TREND AND PATTERN OF URBANISATION IN INDIA Ramesh Godara & Chandra Kala Jangid Abstract Urbanization or Urban Drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.. It is a long term process. At the moment, India is among the countries of low level of urbanization. Number of urban agglomeration/town has grown from 1827 in 1901 to 5161 in 2001. Number of population residing in urban areas has increased from 2.58 crores in 1901 to 28.53 crores in 2001.
The pattern, however, has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. A large proportion is currently concentrated in six most developed states, namely Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Punjab and West Bengal, accounting for about half of the country 's urban population. This can largely be attributed to colonial inheritance, all these states reporting percentage of urban population much above the national average of 27.8 in 2001. Several studies have shown that the levels of urbanization in the states with high per capita income are generally high, the opposite being the case of less urbanized states (Sivaramakrishna, Kundu and Singh
Today the worlds population is growing at 1.15% per year which is 80500000 people annually. Some of the most populated countries of today are India,China,Russia,Brazil and South Africa these countries are also known as the BRIC nations. Population growth does increase demand nevertheless it also volleys workforces with a lot of extra workers, this unfortunately pauperizes wages and increases poverty. It is impossible to see a correlation between population growth and development in 2 or 3 years, In order to see an correlation we have to look about 20 years back so that we can distinguish the impact of all those births entering workforces. Rapid population growth still remains in numerous amount of developing countries.
There has been increase in production and supply of textile products in last few decades globally, mainly due to rapidly changing social and economic structure of the countries worldwide. In past few years, especially after the removal of trade related tariffs and non-tariff barriers in 2005, Asian countries such as China, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Hong Kong and Japan have emerged as major players in textile industry, mainly due to their changes on economic front and infrastructure developments. Given the lower supplier concentration in the Pakistan’s textile industry, evident by the existence of over 1,200 ginning factories, 11 471 spinning units and 50 composite units, indicate a weak bargaining power of supplier. Moreover, owing to prevailing energy issues and higher cost of doing business in
However, an ultimate consequence of urbanisation appears as an increase in population. There may be many reasons for the population explosion but the declining land productivity, rising expectations for higher wages, and a search for better living conditions are the prominent motivations for migration from less developed areas towards developed areas. In case of Pakistan census records show that the rate of urban population increase has risen from 17.7 percent in 1951 to 32.5 percent in 1998. Karachi, the most populated city of Pakistan has sufficient worth to be considered as a case study because of two reasons. Firstly, large spatial expansion and enormous increase in population in a short span of time, secondly, the bizarre appearance of Katchi Abadies (temporary settlements) and their amalgamation in the urban
This pollution comes from households, vehicles, industries, and farms which releases chemicals. In short pollution means the energy or matter which is released in to the environment which brings a change in ecosystem. The world with its fastest growth of its population simultaneously one of human necessities likes a transportation vehicles also enormously increasing. Most studies shows in the world, there were in 1999 in the world wide the number of vehicles registered were 700 million. From this huge number of vehicles US has got its share which is 200 million vehicles is for passengers’ cars and light trucks.
As in 2006 it has handled almost 30 million passengers. Plus Dubai has built their second airport called Al-Maktoum International which is known also as Dubai World Central International airport which will be the largest airport in the world. At first the airport was opened on 27th June 2010 for cargo operations followed by passenger flights in October 2013. The airport is currently under expansion as once completed, this airport will be the world’s largest global gateway with capacity for more than 160 million passengers per year. It will also serve as a multi-modal logistics hub for 12 million tons of freight.
The first multinational company is the East India Company and it has begun the operation for years 1600 followed by the Dutch-East India Company, founded on 20th March 1602, which would become the largest company in the world for nearly 200 years. Some multinational companies are very large with budgets that exceed some of the nations ' GDP-s and can also give a great impact on the local economies, and even in the entire world economy and they have an important role in the international relations and globalization. Such countries represent around 80% of the total population, and interpret about 20% of the world 's economic systems. (Antoine Van Agtmael 1981). The world’s 500 largest and multinational companies generated about of $27.6 trillion in revenues and $1.5 trillion in profits for the year 2015 and employed 67 million people worldwide and they are represented by 33 countries.
Paper Industry in Pakistan is important as it has emerged and survived well over the years. About 70% of the paper units are in Punjab, 10% are in NWFP and the rest 20% are in Sindh. Punjab has the greater proportion as it has the higher availability of underground water as well as wheat straw which is the prime raw material in paper production. At present there are around 100 organized and unorganized paper production sectors in the country (Anon., 2014). Paper Production involves
Introduction and problem back ground Urbanization is an uprising fact that is increasing with full pace in almost every region of the world including Pakistan. The urban population is likely to increase nearly 50%in 2030 that is 33% at the present stage in Pakistan, shows that the country which was known as rural, now changing its patterns to urban with multiple factors. However the major part of Pakistan’s population is concentrated in the urbanized metropolitan cities and each city has its own development authority with the number of Town Municipal Administrations for the implementation of the laws and bye as well as the approval and monitoring of development activities comes in their sphere of activities. Literature Review There are studies and researches done, regarding the urban planning and development, urban policies, formal and informal sectors in housing and real estate in Pakistan and also