2.Homotropic modulation . 3.Heterotropic modulation. DESENSITIZATION: Desensitization of the postsynaptic neuron is ; the decrease in response to same neurotransmitter stimulus. Means the strength of synaps may be diminished in response as the action potential arrives in repid succession –ie refered as a phenomenon that give rise to so called frequency dependence of synaps . Our nervous system exploy this property for the computational purpose , and can turn this synaps to such means as phosphorylation of proteins involved .
The three things that can cause the enzyme to denature is a large change in pH level, High Temperature, and substrate concentration. According to our knowledge, we know that a large change in pH will cause instability in the protein structure thus resulting in denaturation of the enzyme. From the data, we can see that pH 3 (total:6.3) and 10 (total:6.2) were the slowest because pH 3 is probably the highest acid and pH 10 is the highest base. The highest acid or base pH represents a large change which would cause the enzyme to denature. The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure.
This is because high sodium chloride concentrations denature the enzyme, preventing the substrate from binding; as a result the enzyme cannot break down starch into glucose. Variables: Independent: Concentration of sodium chloride (%) Dependent: Rate of change of absorbance (Abss-1) Controlled: -Iodine and starch concentration. Both the concentrations of starch and iodine affect the rate of absorbance. Therefore this will be kept constant by creating the same mixtures, which will be used for all the trials. -Volume of solution inside cuvette will be kept constant for all trials by adding only 2.5cm3 of starch and iodine solution and 0.5cm3 of Amylase and Sodium-Chloride solution to the cuvette.
SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION Action potentials (electrical signals) convey information along neurons. Electrical changes in receptor cells initiate these signals. Chemicals induce these signals in chemoreceptors. Ion channels are openings in the cell membrane that allow the movement of ions through them. Positively charged ions like sodium ions move into
The other process was osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane from an area of high contraction to an area of low concentration. Osmosis happens in three different environments. Osmosis is like diffusion in it requiring no energy. Osmosis can happen in three different types of environments; Hypertonic, Isotonic and Hypotonic.
The speed of movement of ions through the ion chromatograph columns depends not only on the diameter of the column but basically on the affinity of the ion to the specific resin or elute selected, the size of the interacting molecules and also the resultant distance between them based on the degree of attraction and repulsion. The ions with strong affinity for resin pass faster through the eluent as compared to the ions which have weaker affinity, which take more time to be
The function of enzymes is to speed up reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started. Along with that enzymes can only work in specific temperatures and specific pHs as well. If the temperature or pH is too high or to low, they won 't work as quickly or may not work at all. For enzymes there are two main hypothesizes, these are know as the induced fit hypothesis and the lock and key hypothesis. In the induced fit hypothesis the binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site.
The most common are precipitation and complexation. In a precipitation reaction, an ion in solution reacts with an added reagent to form a solid. Whether a solid will form from a given reaction can be predicted by the solubility product constant (Ksp) of the solid under the given conditions. Solubility product constants are the equilibrium constants for the dissolution of an "insoluble" ionic solid in water. A low Ksp implies that the compound does not dissolve to an appreciable degree in water.
Osmosis and diffusion are both types of transports. Diffusion is the process of which molecules spread from areas of high concentration, to areas of low concentration. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane, moving molecules from an area of high concentration, to an area of low concentration. The capability of an extracellular solution to move into or out of the cell is known as tonicity. Three terms are used when relating to tonicity; Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic (khan, 2016).
Reverse osmosis makes desalination work. We defined osmosis as a naturally occurring process in which a liquid such as water spontaneously passes through a membrane. The membrane allows some molecules like water through, but other molecules like salt are unable to easily pass through the membrane structure. It moves from a more concentrated solution to a less concentrated solution. So, in osmosis fresh water (High concentration of water molecules) moves to salt water (Low concentration of water molecules), as a result we get higher amount of salt water.
Two forces drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane: a chemical force, or in this case, or the ion 's concentration gradient, and an electrical force, or the effect of the membrane potential on an ions movement. An anion is a negatively charged ion. A cation is a positively charged
The refractory period, though very small, is divided into two parts, the absolute and relative periods. In the absolute refractory period, no action potentials can occur, no matter what the stimulation. In the relative refractory period, an action potential can happen if a stimulus stronger than the normal one occurs. When the Na+ channels refract, the K+ channels, open due to the depolarization, allow potassium to leave the cell. Because the inside of the cell has become more positive due to the influx of sodium, the outside is relatively more negative, attracting the potassium.
1. Chloride ions will diffuse into the cell, as it is moving from an area of high concentration, to an area of low concentration. Chloride ions will diffuse into the cell because the equilibrium potential of chloride ions is more negative than the membrane potential, therefore when chloride ions diffuse into the cell the equilibrium potential of chloride ions and the membrane potential will become more balance. If, by the process of active transport, chloride ions moved out of the cell this would create a bigger gap between the equilibrium potential of chloride ions and the membrane potential. 2.
Enzyme Inhibitors,” 2013). The introduction of malonate can decrease succinic dehydrogenase activity by acting as an inhibitor. This is because the malonate will block the substrate succinate from reaching the enzyme. The result of this interaction yields no product and succinic dehydrogenase activity decreases. This type of inhibition can be called competitive because only one of the substrates can bind to the enzyme.