Hofstede's first dimension, power distance is about how the culture relates to the uneven power distribution. High power distance countries, respect status and their communication with lower levels shows also their superiority, while low distance countries disregard hierarchical levels. Hungary and USA are in between high and low power distance cultures. As we can see from the chart the biggest power distance difference is between France and Austria, which requires a wise communication between the two countries. Austria, with a much lower power distance appreciate if the the employees are also an active team member in problem solving, decision-making process, since status is mostly irrelevant.
However, people in low power distance of societies care about the justifying fairness of inequalities of power and the authority in its rightness or their personal interests. Superior’s power and authority is hardly accepted by subordinates in such a culture. Subordinates are expected to be consulted because the hierarchy is relatively small. So, subordinates will quite easy to approach and retort their superior. For instance, people live in United State, Germany and Canada tends to be relatively power
Moreover, employees can often respond to stress in a negative manner, and stress is known to lead to unethical decision making (Selart, & Johansen, 2011). The main causes of organizational stress are time management issues, unstable work conditions, underpayment, people, and difficult people (Walden University, 2015e) which in turn
Level 3: Organizational Stressors. Characterized by factors that reflect the organizations itself (size, number of levels, rules), as well as factors that relate to position and interaction of people (role conflict and job ambiguity). Organization stress levels are not the same for all organizations and vary from departments to departments by means of workload and assigned task. Clearly, what makes one organization more stress engendering than another depends on the predominance of certain properties. Work overload, underwork, job ambiguity, organizational structure, people management and role conflict.
People in low uncertainty avoidance index community are more inclined to entrepreneurial, risk bearing and less dependent in stereotype style. In the high level of uncertainty avoidance index, people are more conservative and hardly changeable (Douglas, 2015). Either UK or China, the uncertainty index is almost half of the world average index (64), which the figure in UK (35) is slightly higher than that in China (30). Relative low level uncertainty avoidance index indicates that people from such kind countries are more patient with discrepancy and divergence against their own culture and traditional trend. The atmosphere of culture is forbearance and compromise (Hao, 2014).
China and South Africa), or one country and a trading bloc (e.g. the European Union and Morocco) or 2 trading blocs (e.g. EFTA and SCU). ADVANTAGES OF REGIONAL AND BILATERAL APPROACH FOR BOTH POOR AND RICH COUNTRIES Most of developing countries are enjoying some sort of trade preferences in the form of very low or up to zero tariffs on their exports to developed countries. Bilateral trade deals tend to attract less attention, therefore pressure from the opposition forces is likely to be low.
1. Scope of the Paper In today´s business trade an interrelationship has become crucial and inevitable, because humankind is living in a more interdependent world. For this many multinational corporations from major economies such as China and the United States merged together and entered joint venture agreements. However, findings claim that unexpected high acculturation, low employee resistance, and high synergy realization may be explained partly by a greater cultural awareness in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A).2 In the past, many considered that differences in culture were barriers for communication and interaction, but today effective global leaders believe that these variations, if well managed, are resources, and not
The nation-state, a fairly recent invention, came into being in the early nineteenth century and over the course of two centuries, has been in constant decline, mainly due to globalization. Today, national homogeneity within a state is becoming a great rarity. Currently, of 193 independent states recognized in the contemporary world, over 170 are multinational (Flint and Taylor, 2007). Striking a balance between supporting the national majority in any society while simultaneously protecting any national minorities continues to be a significant challenge facing almost all states. The phenomenon that issues relating to the interests of a single person belonging to a national minority has become a focal point for discussion in society comes as
Recently social conflicts reached more popularity than ever before. One of the biggest industrial problems of the past centuries has been the growing number of conflicts between the employers and the employees. Capital-labor conflict is a kind of social conflict, which happens in the workplace between individuals and affects most of the aspects of life: social, economical and political. In economical sphere it affects the production. Sometimes it can destroy good capital-labor relations, and sometimes can cause shaping new capital-labor relations.
One strength of HDI is that it measures more social development and not just the economic health of a country, not many other measures would concentrate as much in the social aspect as much as HDI. “This index is based on a belief that, while economic growth is a useful indicator of development it is limited in its ability to capture how expanding income translates into human development” (Power, 2009) Another advantage being that very wealthy countries with uneven income distributions perform quite badly and poor countries with more of an equal distribution usually tend to a lot better. Examples of this are clearly evident in the Human Development Index in 2011 where Estonia’s gross national income(GNI) per capita was only 16,799 but still placed number 34 in sharp contrast to a very wealthy country such as Qatar whose gross national income per capita was a mammoth 107,721 but still placed below Estonia at number 37. Another advantage being that “There is widespread use of HDI to compare development levels and it does reveal clear global patterns” (Daniel Winsbury Sociology).This can be very useful to establish where and what must be causing some problems around the world. The use of measuring factors such as education and health can give a strong indication whether the government is successful in some of its policies.