Relativism is the conception that believes one’s value, behavior, belief and morality have no universal validity; all of them are equally valid and are related to other certain elements. Relativism is often associated with a normative position, usually pertaining to how people ought to regard or behave towards those with whom they morally disagree. (Stanford University, 2008) Cultural relativism is a theory that deals with the diversity among different cultures. It considers that people live in a particular cultural background and enrich their culture through particular communication and innovation within the society; every culture has its own unique developmental processes that are determined by its social environment and natural surroundings. To add with, cultural relativists also believe that there do not exists a universal evaluative grading standard to measure the value of culture due to the differences among them; therefore, no culture can be judged by the standard of other groups.
Berger and Luckmann appear to go further than Mannheim and suggest that all knowledge is socially constructed. What Berger and Luckmann appear to mean is that reality is interpreted differently by different social groups. The major difference between Berger and Luckmann and Mannheim, however, is that for Berger and Luckmann, knowledge as a whole is regarded as being socially constructed that is, involves 'common sense reality '(Berger and Luckmann, 1966). Berger and Luckmann claim thatknowledge should not be reduced such that theydeal with only by a small group of people but instead, any common member of society should take part in it. Their major contribution is that theysuggest that sociology of knowledge must beginwith the commonsense view of reality as the traditional sociology of knowledge has been mostly focussing on ideologies and theoretical knowledge, thus only capturing a small part of what is being passed as knowledge in a society.
When it comes to Hume’s theories, specifically the principles of ideas, we can evaluate them based on their identities. Out of the three associative principles, “causation is the strongest and the only one that takes us beyond our senses” (Morris and Charlotte). Causation establishes a link between the present and the past and this can be compared to the relation between the cause and effect. Hume tries to show the ways we associate ideas, and the reasons why it’s supposed to stay that way. He doesn’t focus on explaining why we do it this way, he automatically assumes that humans understand this concept.
However, naturally, one will only post what he knows others will accept and enjoy just as he does. This, in turn, does the opposite of what social media were intended to do. Instead of allowing the expression of unaltered and original ideas, it is a platform of suppressed individualism which only encourages mainstream concepts. Conformity is seen everywhere, society encourages it. Social Media, News Broadcasters, and the FCC are all examples of underlying ways the top one percent can monitor and manipulate the ways people live their lives.
Social categorization theory developed by Turner (1978) describes the categorization of people based on salient attributes like gender, ethnicity or age, resulting in stereotyping on the basis of these differences. Social categorization theory posits that similarities and dissimilarities of demographics can lead formation of different group with resulting effects on member of in-group favorably themselves to the detriment of members of out-groups social (Turner, Brown & Tajfel, 1979). Self-categorization theory explains when individuals categorize themselves by assigning to themselves the manners, actions and other characteristics they link with association within a specific group (Schmitt, Branscombe, Silvia, Garcia, & Spears. 2016). By means of self-categorization and membership of a group, people cultivate a social identity that functions as a social-cognitive scheme (customs, standards and attitudes) for their group associated action.
Broadly defined, cultural appropriation is the use of the aspects of one culture by members of other cultures (Young, 2010). However, it is important to note that not all cultural appropriation is equal. In his synthesis, Richard A. Rogers (2006) categorised cultural appropriation into four groups: cultural exchange, cultural dominance, cultural exploitation, and transculturation. The debates surrounding cultural appropriation mainly focused only the usage of a subordinated culture by a dominant culture without permission, which Rogers identified as cultural exploitation. This is different from cultural exchange and transculturation, which is done on equal basis, and cultural dominance, which is done by the subordinated
A Defense of Ethical Relativism Benedict views morality as something that depends on the different\ histories and environments of different cultures. Yes, I believe she is correct stating that our culture is “but one entry in a long series of possible adjustments”. Why? Because what is considered moral in one society may be considered immoral in a different society, but each individual society is correct. She asserts morals are culturally defined based on what’s considered the appropriate behavior in each society.
Whether through art or language, representations of identity ensue from processes that communicate what manners of being are considered culturally valid within a society. The expression of these expected conditions of existence depends on normative forms of social conditioning, and it is from within this fixed set of self-reproducing actions that hegemonic apparatuses possess power over people. Owing to an ideological foundation situated among various terms pioneered by Gloria Anzaldúa in her piece titled Borderlands/La Frontera, José Esteban Muñoz develops an ability to comprehend how the performance of intersubjective queerness disturbs essences of normativity, and comforts those who disidentify with mainstream perception. The following concepts
Considering these facts one can say that cultural relativism has been well established in relation to traditional ethical theories, the corruption process is accepted based on the fact that one society has the possibility to pay its officers better and the other does not have the possibility to do, so is obliged to accept the corruption that is being made. Values and morality are not specific to certain culture and corruption relative to another one. Cultural relativism is totally different from the traditional ethical theories, which is to formulate rules of action that everyone, people of all time, places and communities, must obey if they want to consider themselves ethically responsible. This is where the conflict is found, where one wants the rules to be specific to one culture and the other wants the same rules to be followed by all
Introduction: As humans we’d like to believe that we will be ready to act according to our values regardless of the situation in which/where we find ourselves in. When considering prosocial behavior, however, research suggests this not to be fully true. Since prosocial behavior is intended to benefit others without having set laws regulating it, it can be influenced by many situational and dispositional factors (Eisenberg, Fabes & Spinard, 2006; Paciello, Fida, Cerniglia, Tramontano & Cole 2013b; Boer & Fischer, 2013; Tyler, Orwin & Schurer, 1982; Pallida-Walker & Fraser, 2014; Simpson & Willer, 2008; Zanon, Novembre, Zagrando, Chittaro & Silani, 2014). Therefore, prosocial behavior is multifaceted and dynamic, as it comprises a multitude