Hofstede's Five Dimensions Of Culture

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Geert Hofstede, a Dutch researcher, used five dimensions of culture to explain differences in behaviors from one culture to another. His work is based on questionnaires completed by IBM employees from 70 countries, one of the largest studies in international management ever conducted. Hofstede,s five dimensions are individualism and collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and femininity, and orientation.

Individualism and Collectivism
Hofstede identified individualism versus collectivism as an important dimension of culture. A number of other scholars have argued that this dimension of cultural variation is the major distinguishing characteristic in the way that people in various societies of the world analyse social behaviour and process information. Individualism may be defined as a social pattern that consist of loosely linked individuals who view themselves as independent of groups and who are motivated by their own preferences, needs, rights and contracts. Collectivism, on the other hand, may be defined as a social pattern that consist of closely linked individuals who see themselves as belonging to one or more groups and who are motivated by norms, duties and obligation identified by these groups. People give priority to the goals of these groups over their own personal goals.
At a score of 20 China is a highly collectivist culture where people act in the interests of the group and not necessarily of themselves. In-group considerations
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